with its St Vladimir's Seminary press founded in 1968. The seminary, with its Russian orientation, had been founded thirty years previously. It was to grow into an inter-cultural institution with an outreach that went beyond its original diaspora framework. By contrast, Jordanville was built 'dans le plus pur style russe'45 in order to reflect a single nation's vision of its idyllic past.

Those who chose the Moscow jurisdiction included several scholars of importance. A number of them taught in the post-war years at a Parisian centre for francophone and western-orientated Orthodox studies, the Institut Saint-Denys, which was set up in 1944. But its eventual deviation from Orthodox practice and belief caused most of these scholars to leave. Its founder Fr Evgraf Kovalevskii was in 1953 to set up a separate Eglise Catholique-Orthodoxe de France. It was an unusual way for the diaspora to develop. Acculturation was the prime requirement in the new foundation, though this, in the view of its critics, might challenge the very 'pillar and ground of the truth' (I Timothy 3:15). Several centres of the Orthodox western rite offered no such challenge, 'different' though they were. But most of them did not outlive their dedicated founding fathers.46 This was in the period from the late 1930s to the 1960s. Of more modest profile than the Institut Saint-Denys was the seminary established in 1953 at Villemoison near Paris by the patriarchate of Moscow. Vladimir Lossky was pre-eminent among its teachers.47


The Russian diaspora in Europe made its impact on the western world by means of scholarship. It also contributed its art and music. A fresh perception of the medieval icon was to fertilise the painters of the emigration. Not that all the churches of the emigration were willing to sponsor a revival of the rediscovered norms. But the second half of the century saw the production of distinguished revivalist work by iconographers such as Grigorii Krug48 and Leonid Uspenskii. Uspenskii organised a school for icon-painters in Paris, and

45 Nikita Struve, Soixante-dix ans d'émigration russe 1919-1989 (Paris: Fayard, 1996), 75.

46 For example, Alexis van der Mensbrugghe, Missel, ou livre de la synaxe liturgique approuvé et autorisé pour les églises orthodoxes de rite occidental relevant du Patriarcat de Moscou (Paris: Editions Setor, 1962).

47 Vladimir Lossky, Essai sur la théologie mystique de l'Église d'Orient (Paris: Aubier, 1944); trans. as The mystical theology of the eastern Church (Cambridge and London: J. Clarke & Co. Ltd, 1957).

48 Higoumène Barsanuphe, Icônes et fresques du Père Grégoire (Marcenat: Monastère orthodoxe Znaméniè, 1999).

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