links of the Church of the East with its offshoots in India, where individual congregations and priests have returned to the jurisdiction of Mar Dinkha.53 In November 1995 a former opponent, Metropolitan Mar Aprem, made his peace along with all his congregations. In January 2000 Mar Dinkha visited India to celebrate the reunification of the Indian church with the Church of the East.

Since 1972 the Church of the East has been split into two. By far the larger is the Holy Apostolic and Catholic Church of the East, which is subdivided into four metropolitanates, namely Baghdad, Malabar, Trichur (Kerala) and Beirut, togetherwith other dioceses in the United States, Canada, Australia and Europe. This group is recognised as a church by, amongst others, the Vatican, the WCC (World Council of Churches) and the Anglicans. The other is the Old Apostolic and Catholic Church of the East - sometimes known as the 'Old Calendarists' - which broke away from the main church in 1968 in protest at Mar Shim'ûn's adoption of the Gregorian calendar. Under Mar Addai II it has its patriarchate in Baghdad, with its seat divided between Kirkuk, Mosul and Trichur (Kerala), as well as a bishopric in al-Haseke (Syria). It also has dioceses in North America, Australasia and Europe. There are no accurate statistics about the number of Christians in the Middle East. However, the following figures may give at least an idea of the size and spread of the Church of the East. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the Church of the East has approximately 385,000 members, and the 'Old Calendarists' perhaps 70,000 at most.

The Chaldean Church54

The origins of the Chaldean Church go back many centuries. In the thirteenth century, Catholic missionaries, Dominicans and Franciscans, were active among the faithful of the Church of the East. In 1445 those settled on the island of Cyprus accepted the Roman confession of faith. Their leader Timothy, archbishop of Tarsus, was granted permission to attend the closing sessions of the council of Florence, where he was referred to as the archbishop

53 Notably the Indian metropolitan church of Trichur.

54 R. Sbardella, 'L'unione della chiesacaldeanell'operadelP. Tommaso ObicinidaNovara', Collectanea: Studia Orientalia Christiana 5 (1960), 373-452; Giuseppe Beltami, La chiesa nel secolo dell'unione [OCA 83] (Rome: Pontificium institutum orientalmm studiorum, 1933); S. Bello, La congrégation de S. Hormisdas etl'Eglise chaldeenne dans la première moitié du XIXe siècle [OCA 122] (Rome: Pontificium institutum orientalmm studiorum, 1933); A. Lampart, Ein Märtyrer der Union mit Rom: Joseph I (1681-1696), Patriarch der Chaldaaer (Einsiedeln: Benziger Verlag, 1966); G. Sorge, 'Giovanni Simone Sullaqa: primo patriarca dell' "Unione formale" della chiesa caldea', Annuarium Historiae Conciliorum 12 (1980), 427-40.

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