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the temptations of nationalism. The nationalist upsurge in Ottoman politics following the Young Turk revolt in 1908, the Balkan Wars (1912-13) and the outbreak of World War I in 1914 carried the Christian nationalities and their churches in the Ottoman Empire further down the precarious road of nationalism. In the immediate aftermath of the War, during the allied occupation of Istanbul, Patriarch Meletios IV (1921-23) openly championed the cause of Greek nationalism.

The Orthodox Church discovered, as the Armenian Church had already done, that succumbing to the temptations of nationalism came at a terrible price: in the shape of martyrdom and exile for their communities. The exodus of the Orthodox from Asia Minor and eastern Thrace, imposed by the treaty of Lausanne in 1923, was an incalculable tragedy for Christianity: it annihilated by fire and axe two thousand years of Christian history whose origins went back to the preaching of St Paul, the seven churches of Asia, and the pastoral miracle performed by the Greek Fathers of the fourth century. It was also a great tragedy for Turkish society: it deprived it of a rich heritage of pluralism and religious symbiosis, which might have made modern Turkey more amenable to the lessons of tolerance and respect for otherness. The only remnant of Orthodox Christianity in Turkey, left behind by this catastrophe, other than the great monuments of the past, has been the ecumenical patriarchate itself and its flock in Greater Istanbul and in the Aegean islands of Imbros and Tenedos. Some Orthodox Arab populations in south-eastern Turkey also remained under the jurisdiction of the patriarchate of Antioch. The Turkish-speaking Orthodox of the interior of Asia Minor, especially in the region of Cappadocia with its exquisite heritage of Christian art, were sacrificed to the Cronus of nationalism and expelled to Greece. Following this tragic interlude a succession ofremarkable patriarchs has ensured that the patriarchate of Constantinople has returned to its genuine traditions of ecumenicity and faithful devotionto the canons, supplying the leadership which the Orthodox world needs to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century.

Nationalism has remained a problem for the Orthodox Church throughout the twentieth century. In the course of that century the vast majority of Orthodox believers lived under the jurisdiction of national churches, which in turn passed under the tight control of secular states. For the most part the states used the churches in order to promote their own political and nationalist agendas. The local national churches became effective instruments in achieving national cohesion and ideological integration in new states ruling over Orthodox populations in the Balkans and elsewhere. The symbolic and psychological power associated with the Christian religion in those regions and

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