of the 'Chaldeans'.55 Since then the term 'Chaldean' has come to be used for those East Syrians in union with Rome.

Though this union did not last, in 1552 a group of Syrian bishops elected the abbot of the monastery of Rabban Hurmizd, Yuhanna Sulaka, patriarch in protest against the tradition of hereditary succession to the patriarchate of the Church of the East, with nephew following uncle, which meant not only that one family dominated the church, but also that an untrained minor might ascend the patriarchal throne. To strengthen the position of their candidate the bishops sent him to Rome to negotiate a new union. Early in 1553 Pope Julius III proclaimed him Patriarch Shim'un VIII 'of the Chaldeans' and ordained him a bishop in St Peter's Basilica on 9 April 1553. The new patriarch returned to his homeland and began to initiate a series of reforms. But opposition, led by the rival patriarch, was strong. Sulaka was quickly captured by the Ottoman governor of Amadîya, and was tortured and executed in January 1555.56 Over the next two hundred years, there was much turmoil and changing of sides as the pro- and anti-Catholic parties struggled with one another.

The Catholic Patriarch Shimon XIII returned to the Church of the East in 1692 and moved his see from Urmia to the more remote location of Kochanes in the Hakkari Mountains of Kurdistan.57 In 1772 his successor, Shimon XV, made overtures to Rome about the restoration of union, but to no avail because by this time the papacy recognised a different line of Catholic patriarchs, beginning with Joseph, bishop of Amida, whose declaration of union received papal approval in 1681.58 Confirmation came in the form of the title 'patriarch of Babylon of the Chaldeans', which Rome then conferred on his successor, Yusuf (Joseph) II.59

55 I.e. archiepiscopus Chaldaeorum, qui in Cyprosunt. Before 1445 there are only three instances in western sources of'Chaldean' referring to oriental Christians, but with the meaning of 'Syriac speaker' rather than in union with Rome: see J.-M. Fiey, 'Comment l'occident en vint a parler de "Chaldéens"?', Bulletin of the JohnRylands University Library of Manchester 78 (1996), 163-70.

56 J. Habbi, 'Signification de l'union chaldéenne de Mar Sulaqa avec Rome en 1553', L'Orient Syrien 9 (1966), 99-132, 199-230; J. M. Voste, 'MarJohanan Soulaqa: premier patriarche des Chaldéens', Angelicum 8 (1931), 187-234. Sulaqa is seen as a martyr for the unity of the church under a Catholic banner: see J.-M. Fiey, 'Martyrs sous les Ottomans', Analecta Bollandiana 101 (1983), 387-406.

57 This is the line that began with Sulaka in 1553 and constitutes the present line of patriarchs of the Church of the East.

58 Lampart, Ein Märtyrer der Union mit Rome.

59 Joseph II was an accomplished defender of the Catholic cause and union with Rome within the eastern Christian community, H. Teule, 'Joseph II, Patriarch of the Chaldeans (1696-1734), and the "Book of the Magnet": first soundings', in Studies on the Christian Arabic Heritage, ed. H. G. B. Teule and R. Y. Ebied (Leuven: Peeters, 2004), 221-41.

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