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Chalcedonian, 375

conversions to Islam, 373

crusades, effect of, 382-6

dhimma status, 373,380-2

heterogeneity of different communities, 373

literary culture and learning, 392-7

monasteries and monasticism, 397-40i Mongol conquests, 386-9 Monophysite, 375 patriarchate conflicts of, 378-80 religious life and culture, 40i-3 Ismail (Khedive), 490, 495 Istifan al-Duwayhl, 519 Italy

Armenian Basilian communities in, 426 Ethiopian occupation, 467, 476, 483, 484 Greeks in, 69-73 Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria, 11,37,38,108 Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria, 16 Ivan I (grand prince of Muscovy), 29, 282 Ivan III (grand prince of Muscovy), 8-9, 260, 265, 270, 273, 287, 292 Ivan IV (the Terrible), emperor of Rus

Aleksei Mikhailovich's apology for murder of St Filipp by 315 art and religion under, 290, 295-301 Byzantine Commonwealth, concept of, 9,

11, 48-9, 52 lay piety and culture under, 254, 258, 260, 264

monasticism under, 266, 269 national consciousness in Russia, rise of,

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