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individual saints began to be painted, sometimes in as many as ten or twelve different episodes, in the narthex or side chapel. These cycles are often found in conjunction with tombs, in which case their purpose seems to have been to recount the saint's deeds that earned him or her the ear of God, and made him or her an effective intercessor for the deceased. Yet the visiting faithful could also come to address the portrait of the saint at any time, outside the strict hierarchy of the church interior, and outside the constraints of the church calendar.

Other ecclesiastical rites

There were of course many other services that took place only at irregular intervals: clerical ordinations, baptisms, weddings and funerals, as well as consecrations of churches, the blessing of houses, the purification of wells, and even, for the patriarch at least, coronations. Each of these occasions had its own rite, though few have left any significant trace in art.53 Images of these services are found for the most part embedded in painted hagiographic cycles or chronicles: the three ordinations, to deacon, priest and bishop, for example, are a regular part of the Vita cycles of St Nicholas.54 Burial scenes, originally showing a saint being laid in a stone sarcophagus in the presence of a censing bishop, become more elaborate over time, and there are fine fourteenth-century depictions of funeral ceremonies, complete with singers, that illustrate the death of St Nicholas and others.55 The deaths of hermits such as St Ephrem or St Sabas are set instead into an expansive landscape of mountainsides and caves from which other hermits are emerging to attend the open-air rites for their dead colleague.56

Memorial services (juv^juoowcr) were held on the anniversary of an individual's death. The emperor John Komnenos stipulated in his Typikon of 1136 for the monastery of the Pantokrator in Constantinople, that on the anniversaries of his death and those of his wife and son, the famous icon of the Virgin Hodegetria was to be carried from its sanctuary across town to the monastery and set up by his tomb, where it was to remain overnight. On the next day, 'the divine liturgy should be celebrated while the holy icon is present'.57

53 Walter, Art and ritual, passim.

54 N. P. Sevcenko, The life of St. Nicholas in Byzantine art (Turin: Bottega d'Erasmo, 1983), 76-85.

56 Faith and power, no. 80. This fifteenth-century icon shows a large icon of the Hodegetria present at the funeral of Ephrem.

57 Thomas and Hero, 11, 756; Sevcenko, 'Icons in the liturgy', DOP 45 (1991), 52.

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