different types of stones, indicating that in powerful amulets the marriage of physical and spiritual elements could be particularly efficacious.

Hundreds of pendant crosses survive from medieval Byzantium, both hollow, for the insertion of relics, and solid cast. These were manufactured in mass quantities in base metals, as well as in deluxe versions, and must have been affordable for many individuals. Bearing images of the Virgin and Christ or saints and simple narrative scenes, these crosses were linked to church dogma through their imagery. Worn close to the body, the crosses protected the wearer and invited reflection on pietistic prayer through their contemplation and through the perception of their suspended weight around the neck.

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