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the synod issued an anathema against his presumed religious deviations, not his philosophical views. When Anthrakitis appeared repentant before it, the synod rescinded the anathema but ordered him from then on to teach only the views of Aristotle.32 Many other important intellectual figures after Anthrakitis escaped the censure of the church despite their advanced views. This applies notably to Eugenios Voulgaris himself, but also to Nikephoros Theotokis, who openly taught Newtonian physics, and especially to Iosipos Moisiodax, who was embroiled in countless conflicts with the traditionalists on account of his militant espousal ofthe philosophical and scientific principles ofthe Enlightenment.33 This vindicates the judgement made by Manuel Gedeon, who pointed out that, regardless of the conflicts between 'old' and 'new' philosophers, official ecclesiastical policy was never actively hostile to modern secular learning and to Enlightenment ideas, even if it remained vigilant and uncompromising where questions of doctrine and faith were concerned.34

Things were to change radically after 1789. The French Revolution proved a catalyst for profound ideological changes in the Greek East as in the rest of Europe. The critical moment came in 1793 with the regicide in France. The apocalyptic vision of the end of civilisation voiced in the arguments of the Counter-Revolution in the west was readily adopted in conservative environments in the Orthodox East. The first expression of this new polemical attitude of Orthodoxy against western liberal ideas came in a pamphlet entitled 'The misery of conceited sages', which was published anonymously in Trieste in 1793. It was probably the work of Athanasios Parios, the most militant counter-Enlightenment scholar writing from within the ranks of the church.35

The new approach of the church towards the Enlightenment and the ideologies of modernity manifested itself in 1793 with the excommunication of Christodoulos Pamblekis. This was the first case of excommunication of a scholar for his philosophical and religious views since the time of Anthrakitis, exactly sixty years earlier. Pamblekis studied at the Athonite Academy under Voulgaris in the 1750s and later on taught in Greek schools in central Europe. In 1786 he had published a book on the nature of philosophy, drawing on and paraphrasing from the Encyclopédie. Six years later the views expressed in this

32 Henderson, Revival of Greek thought, 33-40; P. M. Kitromilides, nsosaa-qvikos aiapwtiajôs, third edition (Athens: Cultural Foundation of the National Bank of Greece, 2000), 43-8.

33 P. M. Kitromilides, The Enlightenment as social criticism: Iosipos Moisiodax and Greek culture in the eighteenth century (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), 46-9, 80-2.

34 Manuel Gedeon, ''EKKÀ^aia Kai smaTTUTi KaTà tov IK aîràva', in H uvsujatiki) kiv-qais too yévous, ed. A. Angelou-P. Iliou (Athens: Ermis, 1976), 97-113.

35 For a survey of'counter-revolutionary' reactions, Kitromilides, aiapwtiajôs, 271-6, 428-31.

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