exactions. As a result, both Armenian regions enjoyed a significant degree of stability and prosperity in the mid-thirteenth century, in marked contrast to the struggles ofthe crusader states to hold their own, while the Latin conquest of Constantinople in 1204 had dealt a nigh mortal blow to Byzantine power. This is the setting against which to view the Armenians' lack of interest in exploring more fully the implications of the union with Rome promulgated by Levon I.
In 1243 Catholicos Kostandin Barjrberdc'i (1221-67) responded positively to Innocent IV's query regarding recognition of the sacrament of extreme unction and other liturgical rites. However, the more substantive issues debated during his long term of office, the filioque and Petrine primacy, only exposed the extent of the differences separating the two sides. Among the messengers the pope dispatched to the east on 25 March 1245 in the run up to the first Council of Lyons was the Franciscan Dominic ofAragon, who was to secure an Armenian confession of faith. When King Het'um I discussed this with his mentor Vardan Arewelc'i, the latter responded by writing a brief compilation of fifteen Latin errors.59 It may be that the creation in 1247 of a new archiepiscopal see at the monastery of St Thaddaeus was also part of this reaction to papal primacy. Not only was St Thaddaeus the traditional guarantor of the apostolicity of the Armenian Church,60 but his monastery also lay close to the Mongol summer quarters, not far from Maku in north-western Iran.
Similarly, though the synod of Sis of 1251 accepted the filioque doctrine, it provoked a major reaction from the church in Greater Armenia, which threatened to create a schism by setting up an anti-catholicos. Both Vanakan Vardapet and Vardan Arewelc'i appear to have accepted the orthodoxy of the dual procession of the Spirit for the theologically sophisticated, if not for the general populace, but their language and images seem to suggest that they had in mind either the Spirit's activity in the economy or the patristic formula 'from the Father through the Son in the Spirit'. Latin polemicists found their formulations unsatisfactory.61
Moreover, the acerbity with which Mxit'ar Skewrac'i and the legate Thomas Agni de Lentino clashed at Acre in 1262 over Petrine primacy caused the pope to send the Dominican William Freney to Ciliciato try to restore a more cordial
59 Girk' t'it'oc' [Book of Letters], ed. Arch. Norayr Polarean (Jerusalem: St James Press, 1994), 657-65.
60 Levon XaCikyan, 'Artazi haykakan isxanut'yuns ev Corcori dproc'a' [The Armenian principality of Artaz and the school of Corcor], Banber Matenadarani 11 (1973), 134.
61 J. N. D. Kelly Early Christian doctrines (London: A. & C. Black, 1977), 256-63.
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