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Byzantine commonwealth as concept and exercise of monastic authority in Rus, 4i-6

cenobitic monasticism, i54, i63, i67

colonisation of land, association with, 41-6, 267

Coptic Christianity, 400, 491, 501-6, 508 divorce, forcible tonsure as means of, 264, 269

donations to, 97,154, 269 eastern Christianities under Islam, 397-401 in Ethiopian Christianity, 460, 461, 467-71 fortified towers, chapels in, 82 Greece, abolition of monasteries in, 235 hesychasm and Gregory of Sinai's prayer manuals, 108-10 hesychastic criticism of, 102 holy mountains as characteristic of

Byzantine monasticism, 155 idiorrhythmic monasticism, 154,163 landed property of,i54

Mount Athos and Ottomans. See Mount

Athos under Ottoman rule under Ottomans, i80 Russian debate between Possessors and Non-Possessors, 269-71, 294 lay piety and, 80, 97 legal texts circulating in, 42 liturgy and monastic rites, fusion of, 127 modern spiritual revival of,586, 590 Mxit'arists, Uniate Armenian order of,44i,

Palamism and, 68,121-6 physical and economic structure of, 154 retirement, late vows as form of, 97,100 rise to dominance in Orthodox Church, 62, 65, i25

Romanian monastic lands, civil confiscation of,239 in Russia

1380-1589, 261, 266-71 art and religion in Moscow, 282 under communism, 570-1 female monasteries, 264, 268, 339-40 under holy synod, 337-40, 341 'learned monasticism', 341 modern restorations, 573, 575 Tatar conquest, effect of, 277 Slavonic textual community created by See

Slavonic textual community spiritual stages of, according to Gregory of

Sinai, 118 Syrian Orthodox, 513

Turkish nomads, effect of invasions of,i55 Uniate reform of, 304 women and monasticism in Russia, 264, 268

Mongols. See also Tatars

Armenian Christianity and, 4i7, 4i9-20,

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