interpreting visually the theology embedded in each of the various prayers. Marginal figures and initials at the beginning of each prayer mean that Gospel feasts are being attached to specific Eucharist prayers. Some of the themes, such as an incipient Heavenly Liturgy for the Proskomide prayer, were to be developed in monumental painting only considerably later, in the Palaiologan period.10
Eucharistic themes on objects used in or associated with the celebration of the Eucharist
The Eucharistic rite was reflected particularly closely in liturgical implements, though in the middle and late Byzantine periods these were generally fashioned from less precious materials than they had been in the early Christian period.11 Patens may be inscribed with Christ's words at the Last Supper ('Take, eat, this is my body . . .'), the words spoken by the priest at the consecration of the host. A form of paten known as the panagiarion, used for transporting to the sanctuary the bread dedicated to the Virgin in the prothesis, receives an ever-expanding multi-figured decoration in the late Byzantine period: a fourteenth-century steatite example intheXeropotamou monastery on Mount Athos bears representations both of the Heavenly Liturgy and of the Communion of the Apostles, themes by now common in sanctuary decoration.12 The aer, a cloth to cover the chalice or the paten, was already being decorated with this communion scene in the twelfth century.13 Bread stamps for the consecrated loaves exhibit a range of themes directly related to their liturgical purpose.14 Large metal processional crosses often bore an image of the Deesis (Christ flanked by the Virgin and John the Baptist who petition Him), or of the Crucifixion, which was an appropriate choice.15 By the early fourteenth century the Great Aer, a cloth to cover both chalice and paten, had become the
10 P. Vokotopoulos, Byzantine illuminated manuscripts of the Patriarchate ofJerusalem (Athens and Jerusalem: Greek Orthodox Patriarchate ofJerusalem, 2002), no. 19, figs. 43-58; A. Grabar, 'Un rouleau constantinopolitain et ses peintures', DOP 8 (1954), 163-99; Schulz, Byzantine liturgy, 80-9.
11 S. A. Boyd, Art in the service of the Liturgy: Byzantine silver plate', in Heaven on earth: art and the church in Byzantium, ed. L. Safran (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1998), 152-85, esp. 180-3; A. Ballian, 'Liturgical implements', in Byzantium: faith and power(i26i-ijjj), ed. H. C. Evans (New York, New Haven and London: Yale University Press (for the Metropolitan Museum of Art), 2004), 117-24.
12 I. Kalavrezou-Maxeiner, Byzantine icons in steatite [Byzantina vindobonensia 15] (Vienna: Verlag OAW, 1985), no. 131.
13 W Woodfin, 'Liturgical textiles', in Faith and power, 295-8, and figs. 10.2 and 10.3.
14 G. Galavaris, Bread and the liturgy: the symbolism of early Christian and Byzantine bread stamps (Madison and London: University of Wisconsin Press, 1970).
15 J. A. Cotsonis, Byzantinefiguralprocessional crosses [Dumbarton Oaks Collection Publications 10] (Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1994).
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