monasteries, canonising saints, settling questions of episcopal jurisdiction, and taking charge of the publication of religious books.15 These activities formed the substance of the traditional pastoral work of the church. Cyril also took two other major initiatives. First, he reorganised and upgraded the moribund patriarchal academy by bringing in his former classmate at Padua, Theophilos Korydalleus.16 This leading neoaristotelian took his patriarch's command seriously: starting in 1624 he redesigned the school's curriculum by introducing alongside sacred and Greek letters Latin and philosophy. He initiated a tradition of neoaristotelianism that was transplanted by his pupils to other major schools in the Greek East and formed a shared philosophical education for the Christian peoples of the Balkans until the coming of the Enlightenment a century and a half later. Korydalleus inevitably ran into trouble with the conservative educational establishment of the time and shared in his patriarch's adventures and downfall.

Cyril's second major initiative, truly revolutionary in character, was the introduction, for the first time, of a printing press to Istanbul to publish religious works for the needs of the faithful. In 1627 he invited Nikodemos Metaxas, a Cephalonian, who had been trained in the art ofprinting in London, to set up a printing press in Constantinople. With the help of the British Ambassador Sir Thomas Roe the press was introduced into Turkey and set up in the city close to the British Embassy for protection. It was the first printing press in the Greek world. Under the patriarch's supervision it began printing religious books, mostly anti-Catholic tracts. A few months later, however, the Jesuits with the help of the French Ambassador to the Porte, the Comte de Cesi, managed to incite a sack of the printing house by the janissaries, who, failing to arrest Metaxas, destroyed his press.17

For the next ten years it was all-out war between the patriarch of Constantinople and the Roman Church. The Propaganda Fide at a meeting in July 1628, presided over by Pope Urban VIII himself, resolved to fight relentlessly against the patriarch until his elimination.18 In order to find support in this battle Cyril had to rely on the Protestant ambassadors in Istanbul: the British, the Austrian and the Dutch. The Protestant ambassadors to the Sublime Porte,

15 M. Gedeon, üaTpiapxiaKoi vivaKSs, ed. N. L. Phoropoulos (Athens: Syllogos pros diadosin ophelimon vivlion, 1996), 430-1, 433-4, 436-7, 439-40.

16 Gedeon, XpoviKa, 74-86; G. P. Henderson, The revival of Greek thought 1620-1821 (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1970), 12-19.

17 Evro Layton, 'Nikodemos Metaxas, the first Greek printer in the Eastern world', Harvard Library Bulletin 15 (1967), 140-68 and in greater detail L. Augliera, Libri, politica, religione nel Levante del Seicento: la tipografia di Nicodemo Metaxas, primo editore di testi greci nell' oriente ortodosso (Venice: Istituto Veneto, 1996), 9-91.

18 Hering, Ökumenisches Patriarchat, 110-13.

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