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patriarchs of the Ottoman period - along with Gennadios II, Jeremias II and Joacheim III. A gifted and charismatic visionary, he came to the throne with a strategy for the renewal of the church and for the reinvigoration of the faith.

Cyril Loukaris: a Protestant patriarch?

Cyril was born Constantine Loukaris in Candia (Iraklion), Crete in 1572.10 He was exposed to the humanist culture of his island in the late Venetian period, but the strong devotion of his family to Orthodoxy led him in the direction of celibate monasticism. He probably began a novitiate in the foremost Orthodox religious house on Crete, the monastery of Angarathos, where his brother Maximos later became abbot (1619-41). Young Loukaris was a restless man - and was to remain so throughout his life. He pursued his studies in Venice, where he received instruction from Maximos Margounios, the bishop of Kythera, who was a staunch defender of Orthodoxy against Catholicism in his theological teaching. Young Constantine Loukaris also enrolled in the University of Padua, where Cesare Cremonini taught him neoaristotelian philosophy. He graduated in 1595 and towards the end ofthatyearhewas ordained deacon and priest in Constantinople by his cousin Meletios Pigas, patriarch of Alexandria, who was also a former member of the brotherhood at Angarathos. Shortly after his ordination Cyril Loukaris followed his patriarch to a synod convoked in 1596 in Constantinople by Jeremias II. The synod condemned the pseudo-union of the Orthodox and Catholic churches voted at Brest-Litovsk by a local synod in 1595. The 1596 synod despatched two exarchs to Poland to inform King Sigismund III of Poland of the decisions taken by the patriarchates of Constantinople and Alexandria and to participate in a second synod at Brest-Litovsk. One of the exarchs, representing Alexandria, was Loukaris. This trip prepared him for his life-long battle against the Jesuits. He made common cause with the Protestants, who were equally persecuted in Poland and Lithuania. This laid the groundwork for his rapprochement with the Protestants. Up to 1600 Loukaris undertook at least two long missions to Poland, Ukraine and Lithuania, working for the Orthodox cause in those regions. He reorganised the Orthodox school at Vilna and founded another one in L'viv. During the fierce persecution of the Orthodox in the year 1600 he barely escaped with his

10 From the voluminous literature see G. A. Hadjiantoniou, Protestant Patriarch: the life of CyrilLukaris (1572-1638) Patriarch of Constantinople (London: The Epworth Press, 1961); Steven Runciman, The Great Church in captivity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968), 259-88 and Karmiris, 'OpdoSo^ia, 177-232; G. Podskalsky Griechische Theologie in der Zeit der Tiirkenherrschajt 1453-1821 (Munich: C. H. Beck, 2000), 162-80.

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