200 300 km
Map 6 Medieval Armenia
Map 6 Medieval Armenia complexions to St Gregory the Illuminator, who had established Christianity as the religion of the Armenian court in the early fourth century.4
The historical course of the ecclesial dialogue mentioned above was determined in significant measure by the large-scale movements of peoples which punctuated the era: in the mid-eleventh century the Seljuq Turks came out of the east, to be followed by the Mongols in the thirteenth century and the Timurids in the 1380s, while the crusades ensured continuous waves of military, ecclesiastical and mercantile contacts with the west. Inevitably, these contacts underlined religious differences, which were a source of much friction.
4 S. P. Cowe, 'An Armenian Job fragment from Sinai and its implications', Oriens Christianus 72 (1992), 148-54.
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