Russian philanthropy could no longer cope with the social consequences of urbanisation, and critics of begging thought it 'too idealistic for contemporary conditions'.50 Just as they had turned to the west for theological expertise, so it was natural to compare Orthodox pastoral work with contemporary Protestant and Catholic practice. As Gladstone had demanded in a parallel inquiry: 'Why should not the sounder scheme have the advantage of that organisation, through which the more erroneous one has recovered from a state of extreme and nearly desperate exhaustion, and still maintains a fight against a portion at least of her adversaries on something like equal terms?'^ The SPCK and the Salvation Army were among the models that attracted Orthodox attention. Ultimately, however, they settled for confraternities (bratstva), on the model of those formed to defend Orthodoxy against Latin proselytism in Lithuania and Ukraine in the sixteenth century, which offered a more fruitful way forward than the often lifeless parish trusteeships formed in the i860s. In St Petersburg, Father Aleksandr Gumilevskii showed what could be done: having founded a journal, The Spirit of a Christian (Dukh khristianina) in i86i, he went on to establish a charitable society in one of the capital's poorest parishes - the Sands - where he achieved a popular and successful realisation of his vision of an Orthodox brotherhood as 'a living Christian union of Orthodox people, warmed by Christian love'.52

Monastic impulses

Though much remained to be done, the Orthodox response to the challenge of heterodoxy had made signal advances by the end of the nineteenth century. Yet pastoral initiatives founded on theological research had never lacked critics within the church. A monk whom Palmer encountered at Sergiev Pustyn in i840 'kept repeating that prayer and holiness have more efficacy than learning' and, when Palmer suggested that the church needed both, gave the impression that 'the current had already set far too much in the direction of intellectual cultivation'.53 For the rest of the imperial period, the monasteries offered an

50 G. P. Smirnov-Platonov in Detskaia Pomoshch' i (i885), 48-54. On the eighteenth century, see J. M. Hartley, 'Philanthropy in the reign of Catherine the Great: aims and realities', in Russiain the age of the Enlightenment, ed. R. Bartlett and J. M. Hartley(London: Macmillan, i990), i67-202.

51 W E. Gladstone, Church principles considered in their results (London: John Murray, i840), 397-8.

52 A. Lindenmeyr,Povertyisnotavice:charity,societyandthestateinimperialRussia(Princeton: Princeton University Press, i996), i29-36.

53 Notes ofa visit to the Russian church, 20i.

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