was, however, completely sincere in his conviction that Aquinas had provided the means by which it was possible to distinguish truth from falsehood.

His devotion to Aquinas was the basis of close relations with the Dominicans. He encouraged his followers to seek refuge with them at Pera when they came under pressure from the Byzantine ecclesiastical authorities to accept Palamite teachings. Maximos Chrysoberges was the first to do so; followed in 1396 by Manuel Kalekas. This was for both of them a decisive step in their conversion to Rome. Kydones also encouraged his followers to do what he had not - to his regret - been able to do: to study in Italy. He congratulated Maximos for enrolling in the University of Padua. He envied his installation in an environment where scholarship was respected, so different from the situation in Constantinople. Kalekas does not seem to have studied at an Italian university, but he stayed in Italy from 1401 to 1403 and attached himself to the circle of emigres around another of Kydones's followers, Manuel Chrysoloras. In the same way as his master, Kalekas was overwhelmed by the splendour of the Italian cities. He involved himself in translating a wide range of Latin theology, including Anselm's Cur Deus Homo. He also cooperated with Maximos Chrysoberges in the creation of a Greco-Roman liturgy, indicative of their hopes of convincing their fellow-countrymen to follow their example. Kalekas returned to Constantinople in 1403 with the emperor Manuel II, but to his surprise his old friends turned on him. He was treated as a traitor and was forced, like Maximos Chrysoberges before him, to seek refuge with the Dominicans of Mytilene, where he died in 1410.44

Manuel Chrysoloras45 accompanied Demetrios Kydones to Italy in 1396 and stayed on after his master's departure the following year for Constantinople.46 Coluccio Salutati, the chancellor of Florence, recruited Chrysoloras to teach Greek at the city's Studium. His brief tenure of the chair of Greek was of immense significance because he used it to lay the foundations of the systematic teaching of Greek in the west. At the core of his teaching was his analytical grammar known as the Erotemata. It was much simplified in comparison to earlier Byzantine textbooks ofthis kind. It also benefited from being translated into Latin by one of Chrysoloras's pupils, Guarino of Verona. Chrysoloras had to cut short his tenure of the Florentine chair because Manuel II Palaiologos

44 R.-J. Loenertz, Correspondance de Manuel Calecas [Studi e testi 152] (Vatican: Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, 1950), 16-46.

45 G.Camelli,Dottibizantinieleoriginidell'UmanesimoI.ManueleCrisolora(Florence:Centro nazionale di studi sul Rinascimento, 1941); M. Baxandall, 'Guarino, Pisanello and Manuel Chrysoloras', Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 28 (1965), 185-204.

46 Kydones died en route in Crete. It was later believed that on his death bed he sought reconciliation with the Orthodox Church: see Mercati, Notizie, 441-50.

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