keenest interest in recently composed works, especially prayers, hymns and other texts used for the liturgy. They translated several prayers and sermons of Philotheos, like Evtimii himself, a former hesychast on Athos. Evtimii's concern to align forms of worship with those in Constantinople continued after his appointment as Bulgarian patriarch in 1375. Evtimii treated the texts and forms of worship used in the Great Church as definitive and, in rewriting works on earlier Bulgarian saints such as Ivan of Rila or composing new ones, he underlined the respect that pious emperors had supposedly shown for patriarchs and other senior churchmen. At the same time, he toned down claims made by thirteenth- and earlier fourteenth-century Bulgarian writers that their 'new Tsargrad' was at odds with the old. Evtimii acknowledged that Constantinople was 'the queen of cities' and raised no objection when the important Bulgarian see of Vidin returned to the fold of the ecumenical patriarchate in the 1380s.84

The foundation of other Bulgarian monasteries at this time also bears witness to the importance of personal links forged on Athos, a disregard for localised loyalties, and a purposefulness amounting to missionary drive. For example, Feodosii, a Bulgarian by birth, founded a monastery at Kilifarevo in Veliko T'rnovo, which received the support of Tsar Ivan Alexander. The monks' zeal for translation was accompanied by strict insistence on discipline and liturgical practices, to the point where Feodosii and his pupil Roman wrote to the Constantinopolitan patriarch, Kallistos, querying some of the practices of their local - Bulgarian - patriarch. They had reason to expect a sympathetic response, seeing that both Feodosii and Kallistos had the hesychast Gregory of Sinai as a spiritual father. Kallistos went on to write Gregory's Life,85 which was soon translated into Slavonic at the Kilifarevo monastery. The Bulgarian patriarch resented the implied criticism and Feodosii and Roman migrated, with their pupils, to Kallistos in Constantinople. Feodosii and Kallistos had both lived in the monastery, which Gregory of Sinai had founded in the Byzantino-Bulgarian borderlands several years after leaving Athos in the later 1320s. Gregory, too, had received patronage from Ivan Alexander and, renowned for his familiarity with the traditions of the early Fathers, had attracted some seventy disciples, Bulgarian, Serb, but also Greek. Gregory was a mystic, who

84 D. I. Polyviannyi, Kul'turnoe svoeobrazie srednevekovoi Bolgarii v kontektse vizantiisko-slavianskoi obshchnosti IX-XV vekov (Ivanovo: Ivanovskii gosudarstvennyi universitet, 2000), 197-8.

85 Patriarch Kallistos, Bios Kai noAiTsia tou sv ayiois naTpos rin&v ip-qyopiou tou Ziva'hou, ed. I. Pomialovskii, in Zhitieizhevosvatykhotsanashego GrigoriiaSinaita[Zapiski istoriko-filologicheskogo fakul'tetaimperatorskago St.-Peterburgskogo Universiteta 35] (St Petersburg, 1896).

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