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which gave him scope for more extreme views. They appeared in 1800 and 1805 respectively and were published at Leipzig at a safe distance from patriarchal censorship.

These measures taken during Gregory V's first patriarchate represented a clear strategy against the feared political effects of the Enlightenment. On a broader cultural level the 1790s were marked by proliferating Orthodox apologetics against the religious consequences of secular philosophy. This literature of Christian apologetics included works by Antonios Manuel (1791) and Prokopios Peloponnesios (1792). They were joined by Eugenios Voulgaris and Nikephoros Theotokis, once exponents of Enlightenment learning but now senior prelates in the Russian Church. Most of these apologetic works were translations or adaptations of western sources against Voltaire and the Enlightenment critique of religion. They supplied ammunition for further polemics like the anti-Voltairean work produced in 1802 by Makarios Kav-vadias.40 The ideological controversy provoked by the reverberation of the debate on the French Revolution in Greek culture provided the broader context for attacks on the Enlightenment that went beyond Christian apologetics. Against the challenges of the critical ideologies of modernity, the ecclesiastical intelligentsia attached to the patriarchate of Constantinople attempted to articulate an alternative perspective defending the traditional worldview.41 The confrontation between modernising and traditionalist scholars took many directions and included the articulation of a vivid and occasionally excessive anticlericalism.42

Despite the ideological controversies of the 1790s, when a new project for the reform of the patriarchal academy was undertaken under Patriarch Kallinikos V in 1804 the open-mindedness towards the Enlightenment that had been exemplified half a century earlier under Cyril V and Seraphim II surfaced again in the blueprint for the new school which was transferred from the Phanar to Kuruçesme on the Bosporus. Some important scholars who had made their mark on Greek Enlightenment culture were invited to collaborate, including Benjamin Lesvios, who had been embroiled in serious controversies with the anti-Copernicans at the academy of Ayvalik. The direction of the school was entrusted to a moderate clergyman, Dorotheos Proios, known for

40 For a survey Kitromilides, Aia<pwTiap.ô<;, 434-43.

41 V Makridis, Die religiose Kritik am Kopernikanischen Weltbildin Griechenland zwischen 1794 und 1821 (Frankfurt am Mein: Peter Lang, 1995).

42 R. Clogg, 'Anticlericalism in pre-Independence Greece', in The Orthodox Churches and the West, ed. Derek Baker (Oxford: Blackwell, 1976), 257-76; A. Tabaki, 'Lumières et critique des eglises au XVIIIe siècle: le cas grec', in Les Lumieres et leur combat: la critique de la religion et des églises a l'époque des Lumières, ed. J. Mondot (Berlin: BWV, 2004), 245-58.

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