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Much has been made of the contrast between the two currents of monas-ticism represented by Nil and Iosif, but if there was acrimonious division over landholdings, this did not prevent Iosif from purchasing the writings of Nil for his monastery.65 For all his harnessing of secular power when curbing heretics, Iosif was firmly committed to protecting church power and wealth from secular interference. There is also some evidence to suggest that Iosif and Nil collaborated in the condemnation of heretics, and even in writing the Enlight-ener.66 However, Nil's followers, most notably the (forcibly) tonsured prince Vassian Patrikeev, stressed the need to forgive repentant heretics and be merciful to the obdurate, while Iosif advocated the punishment of the repentant and the death penalty for those who would not recant.67 In the early sixteenth century the 'Josephites' triumphed: Vassian was put on trial (1531) and his followers were hounded into the forests beyond the Volga, where they remained a source of 'dissidence' and the possible inspiration for later heterodox movements. This victory of the 'Josephite mentality' - the belief that secular power should be utilised by the church, and the conviction that the church should be active in worldly affairs - is often credited with the entanglement of church and state, to the detriment of all, for the next four centuries.68

National ideologies/mythologies

This whole period can be characterised by a political, territorial and spiritual consolidation, culminating in the creation of an autocephalous, national church. A distinct but gradual parallel drift away from the mother-church in Byzantium mirrors this 'nationalisation' of Russian piety. In the 1390s, Patriarch Anthony IV of Constantinople had to write to Grand Prince Vasilii I to chastise him for omitting the name of the emperor from prayers and asserting that, while Russia had the church, it did not have the emperor.69 Relations were not to improve in the following century, and the 1438-39 Council of Florence, which united the western and eastern churches under the papacy, speeded up the drive to autocephalous status. When Metropolitan Isidore returned to Moscow in 1441 to propagate this Florentine Union, Vasilii II swiftly imprisoned

65 D. M. Goldfrank, The monastic rule oflosifVolotsky [Cistercian Studies Series 36] (Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1983), 31.

66 Lur'e, 'Unresolved issues', 163-71.

67 See J. L. I. Fennell, 'The attitude of the Josephians and the Trans-Volga Elders to the heresy of the Judaisers', Slavonic Review 29 (1950-51), 486-509.

68 See D. Pospielovsky, The Orthodox Church in the history of Russia (Crestwood, NY: St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1998), ch. 4.

69 Miklosich and Müller, 11,191. See above pp. 31-2.

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