of the political realities: the 1552 'crusade' against Kazan, for example, was nevertheless supported by the (Muslim) Tatar Nogai.78

The political and territorial consolidation of the Russian land was mirrored by a unification and standardisation of Orthodoxy. This began with a consolidation of the liturgical calendar in the first half of the fifteenth century, which emphasised the continuity between 'Kievan' Rus and Muscovy by the revival or institution of various feasts such as that of St Olga, the first baptised ruler of Rus. The patron saints of the northern towns and monasteries were included later in the fifteenth century, and this process culminated in Metropolitan Makarii's Great Menologion (Velikaia mineia chet'ia), with spiritual readings for every day of the year.79 The Great Menologion, which appeared in three editions dedicated to Ivan IV during the metropolitan's rule (1542-63), was Makarii's attempt to compile a definitive compendium of the spiritual heritage and Orthodox culture of Russia, reflecting a unified nation and church. Many of the texts integrated in this work, including some commissioned by Makarii, stress the duties of the divinely appointed tsar to protect the Orthodox faith and support the institution of the church, and develop a historiography of the world that places Moscow at the centre of Orthodox history.

Metropolitan Makarii also oversaw the creation of the Book of Degrees of Imperial Genealogy (Stepennaia kniga tsarskogo rodosloviia), a selective history of rulers and metropolitans which begins with a panegyric to the first baptised ruler of Rus, St Olga, and proceeds to connect 'autocrats of Russia' from the tenth-century Kievan saint-prince Vladimir I to Ivan IV in a continuous, sanctified dynasty descended from Caesar Augustus. Most of the ideas and texts incorporated in Makarii's Great Menologion and the Book of Degrees were unoriginal - the motif of the ruler as a 'second Constantine' and the myth of descent from Augustus appeared in the fifteenth century, for example. Their presentation in systematic fashion was, however, original, and signified the birth of a self-consciously Orthodox and autocratic state of 'Great Russia', wearing the inherited mantle of Byzantium with pride.

If the Great Menologion sought to establish the definitive spiritual library, the Stoglav Council of 1551 sought to standardise piety by confirmingthe 'rightness' of Moscow practices, ignoring regional differences and canonical correctness

78 See for example S. Bogatyrev, 'Battle for divine wisdom: the rhetoric oflvanIV's campaign against Polotsk', in The military and society in Russia, 1450-1917, ed. E. Lohr and M. Poe (Leiden: Brill, 2002), 325-63.

79 R. D. Bosley 'The changing profile of the liturgical calendar in Muscovy's formative years', in Culture andidentity in Muscovy, 135 9-1584, ed. A. M. Kleimola and G. D. Lenhoff (Moscow: ITZ-Garant, 1997), 26-38.

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