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Afanas'ev, may have influenced churches other than their own.43 The diaspora encouraged more than mere mimesis ofthe past. Be that as it may, the Bulgakov affair was yet one more reminder of different diaspora concerns. The Church Abroad had its own publishing outlets, whose output hardly overlapped with that of the YMCA press. Thus, in 1922 a press was set up in Slovakia which was named after St Iov of Pochaev. But its principal concern was pastoral. It produced prayer books and pocket editions of the gospels. It also published church periodicals of interest to the general reader.

When the Nazis invaded Slovakia in 1938, they demonstrated the importance of this press by checking the circulation of its publications in Germany itself. However, the press was not alone. Several German-based initiatives also made their mark in the succeeding years. Some of this was due to a follower of Archbishop Evlogii, the priest Ioann Shakhovskoi. After the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, however, there was a prohibition on export to the newly occupied lands of church literature or goods. The monastic publishers at the Slovakian press were bitterly disappointed. Earlier, they had dreamed of vindicating their emigre vocation by transferring their energies to their native soil. As they put it: 'We continue urgently to prepare missionary literature for the Russian Church as its liberation proceeds, and incidentally prepare ourselves for missionary work out there.'44

The war years brought Russians nearer in a different way. After 1945 vast numbers of prisoners and forced labourers were to find themselves under the supervision of the western allies. The newcomers had no sympathy for the Moscow patriarchate, and many of them merged gratefully with the Church Abroad, the more so since, under Nazi pressure, few ofthe parishes in western Germany, loyal to Archbishop Evlogii, survived the war.

It was the emigration of numerous displaced persons to the New World that prompted the translation of the headquarters of the Church Abroad to the USA in 1946. It also reinvigorated the church's monastery-cum-seminary, which had been established at Jordanville in 1928. This was to become the most prolific publisher of the jurisdiction. Like the Pochaev press, which it now absorbed, Jordanville sought to meet pastoral and liturgical needs. But it was not minded to emulate the YMCA press with its fresh examination of received truths. The Orthodox Church in America was foremost in this field,

43 See Aidan Nichols, Theology in the Russian diaspora: church, fathers, eucharist in Nikolai Afanas'ev, 1893-1966 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 60, 253 n.70.

44 Munich archive of the German diocese of the Russian Church Abroad, [1941], quoted in Shkarovskii, Natsistskaia Germaniia, 262 and n.269.

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