revolutionary as Gapon'.84 'I believe in the one holy, conciliar, apostolic church', retorted the unrepentant preacher, 'but I reject with all my strength and understanding the servile, monkish Byzantinism and soulless pobedonost-sevshchina (triumphalism) that passes under the name of Orthodoxy.'85

Whereas clergy on the left tended to advocate shorter services and more accessible sermons, the right insisted on maintaining the full panoply of Orthodox liturgical practice: elaborate icon processions and lengthy masses celebrated with due episcopal pomp. Their greatest commitment to social Christianity lay in commandeering much of the church's long-standing temperance campaign, a natural enough cause for advocates of popular restraint.86 Many of the right's actions, however, served to undermine rather than stabilise Nicholas Il's pseudo-constitutional bureaucratic regime. Iliodor, whose hunger strike at his Tsaritsyn monastery in January 1911 threatened to bring down the prime minister, agitated for the release of the church from its Petrine straitjacket -'not a single act of state, be it the publication of new laws, the declaration ofwar, or the participation of peasants and workers, should be managed without the preliminary advice and blessing of the church'87 - and for the deliverance of the tsar from treacherous ministers. Whereas Stolypin distrusted the press, Iliodor mercilessly exploited it. Denouncing the October manifesto for 'inundating long-suffering Russia with blood', he demanded the death penalty for Witte and urged Russians to take the law into their own hands: 'I, the monk Iliodor, bless you in the great and holy work of emancipating the dear Motherland from atheists, robbers, blasphemers, bomb-throwers, firebrands, lying journalists and slanderers - all of them cursed by God and condemned by men.'88 Comparing Stolypin to Pontius Pilate, Iliodor incited peasant delegates to the fourth monarchist congress in April 1907 to demand the compulsory alienation of private property, unnerving even Aleksandra Bogdanovich by his apparent determination to destroy 'not only the people sitting in the ministries, but the walls of the ministries themselves'.89 Trading on the freebooting tradition of his native Don Cossack region, Iliodor heralded his mass Volga pilgrimage in

84 RGIA, f. 796, op. 187, d. 6668, ll. 23ob. (Archbishop Nikolai's report); 55, Synod decision; S. P. Mel'gunov (ed.), 'K. P. Pobedonostsev vdni pervoi revoliutsii', inNachuzhoistorone, ed. S. P. Mel'gunov (Berlin, 1924), viii, 188, Pobedonostsev to S. D. Voit, 7 April 1905.

85 Pis'mo sviashchennika Grigoriia PetrovaMitropolitu Antoniiu (St Petersburg: Pravda, 1908), 16.

86 P.Herlihy The alcoholic empire: vodka andpolitics inlateimperialRussia (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), ch. 5.

87 Pravda ob ieromonakhe Iliodore (Moscow: L. I. Ragozin, 1911), 5.

88 Veche, 1 February 1907.

89 Rech', 28 April 1907; Novoe vremia, 28 April 1907; Bogdanovich, Tri poslednikh samoderzhtsa, 425-6, 4 May 1907.

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