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and the pattern of life in a village square with its coffee and tobacco, and the harmonious intermingling of Greeks and Turks.50

Changes to the model that Bars'kyj employed for his text will reflect his exposure to Greek education. If the first sections were influenced by the Slavonic khozhdenie tradition, then the final section owed much to the Greek proskyne-taria. An eighteenth-century proskynetarion by Ioannis Komnenos was the single most important item of secondary literature used by Bars'kyj for his description of Athos.51 He consulted both the 1701 and 1745 editions.52 In some ways his account provides an improved, expanded and corrected version of Komnenos's illustrated guide to worship on Athos.

The emphasis of his journal gradually moved away from being a guidebook, diary and autobiography, to being a scholarly and polemical treatise designed to defend the truth, expose falsehood and benefit his homeland. The text is constantly punctuated with attacks on the Turkish oppressors and on papism, and sparkles with pious sermons concerning those who were prepared to suffer martyrdom for the sake of the Holy Orthodox Church. Providing a unifying thread to his account of his friendship with Patriarch Sylvester is the continuous struggle to preserve the independence of the Orthodox Church from the encroachments of Roman Catholicism.53 In similar fashion, his very lengthy section on Mount Athos culminates in an attack on the treacherous policies of Michael VIII Palaiologos and the patriarch John XI Bekkos. Their persecution of anti-unionist monks in 127654 resonated with events occurring in Bars'kyj's native Ukraine, where the Orthodox faithful were under attack from Roman Catholic Uniates. On a different tack, Bars'kyj's precise record of the liturgical procedures, arrangement of church furnishings and church organisation of the Greek Orthodox Church was a contribution to the purification and preservation of the Orthodox tradition, both in Ukraine and in Russia. His journal increasingly became a guide to the ancient - and by implication, pure - traditions of Orthodoxy as they survived in the Holy Land, in the Greek lands and on the Holy Mountain.

51 Ioannis Komnenos, üpoaKuvqTápiov too AyioO "Opous too AGxvos (Venice: N. Glykys, 1745). For a discussion of some of the conventions of this tradition see K.-D. Seemann, Die altrussische Wallfahrtsliteratur. Theorie und Geschichte eines literarischen Genres (Munich: W Fink, 1976); G. D. Lenhoff Vroon, 'The making of the medieval Russian journey', PhD dissertation, University of Michigan, 1978.

52 Bars'kyjmentions that he consulted the 1745 Venice edition of this üpoaKuvqTápiov in Constantinople, to check if there had been any changes made to a particular entry from the earlier 1701 edition, Bars'kyjMs., fol. 400r.

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