especially the British Sir Thomas Roe and his successor Sir Peter Wych, and the Dutch Cornelius Haga, supported Cyril in his efforts to face the machinations of the Jesuits and subsequently the Capuchins against him. The enemies of the patriarch attempted to turn the Ottoman authorities against him by accusing him of disloyalty and by ascribing political motives to his pastoral work. In the hope of dethroning the patriarch they also encouraged dissension in the synod by accusing him ofheresy and by exaggerating his Protestant sympathies. More effective than the religious arguments were the large sums of money, which helped his namesake Cyril Kontaris, metropolitan of Berroia, to create a faction against him in synod.

Sir Thomas Roe retired from Constantinople in late 1627. Cyril gave him a truly royal departing gift for his sovereign Charles I: a manuscript of the Bible known as the codex Alexandrinus. Meanwhile the Austrian Ambassador Kuefstein, who was a Protestant, gave way to a Catholic. Thus Cyril's main support remained Cornelius Haga, the Dutch ambassador. Soon, however, the patriarch became his backer's prisoner. In exchange for their support Cornelius Haga and the chaplain of the Dutch Embassy Antoine Leger, both of them deeply committed Calvinists, pressured the patriarch to introduce Protestant measures and teachings in his church. The price of their support took the specific form of issuing a confession of Christian faith by the patriarch. It has been suggested that the text was drafted by Calvinist pastors in Geneva and revised by Leger to make it appear closer to some Orthodox dogmatic requirements and presented to the patriarch for his signature. Cyril apparently made some further revisions and signed the confession in 1629. Published that same year in Geneva was a Latin translation under the title of a 'Confession of Christian faith by Cyril, Patriarch of Constantinople'. Translations in English and French followed. In the title it was specified that the confession had the agreement ofthe other patriarchs ofthe eastern church. In 1633 a Greek version of the confession also appeared.19

The confession is a relatively short text of eighteen articles followed by four questions and answers on the basic tenets of the Christian faith.20 Of the

19 On the circumstances of drafting the 'confession' Karmiris, 'OpdoSo^ia, 1,212-21; Hering Ökumenisches Patriarchat, 187-202. Hadjiantoniou, Protestant Patriarch, 99-109, strongly supports Cyril's authorship ofthe confession.

20 The text and commentary in I. Karmiris (ed.), Ta SoyjariKa KaiaujßoÄiKa jivqjieia T-rjs 'OpdoSo^ov KaGoÄiK-rjs 'EKKÄqaias (Athens, 1953), 11, 562-71. An English translation in Hadjiantoniou, Protestant Patriarch, 141-5. See also C. Davey 'Cyril Loukaris and his Orthodox confession of faith', Sobornost 22 (2000), 19-29. I. N. Karmiris, 'nepi to ^poßAqja tt|s AeyojEvqs "AouKapeiou" 'OjoAoyias', QeoÄoyia 56 (1985), 675-93, esp. 668-79, points out that the confession is fundamentally Calvinist in its theological content.

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