ecclesiological principle that there should be only one bishop in each place, but also intrudes into what is historically the territory of the patriarchate of Rome, the papacy. Many members of Orthodox churches in the west are often second-or third-generation western nationals and so identify more with the land in which they now live. Others are western converts who find the ethnic character of churches unnatural. There is a growing sense among many Orthodox in the west that they are western Christians not eastern Christians, and they hope that a local western Orthodox Church will be formed to give a common identity to the growing western Orthodox churches and to encourage their mission. The rapid growth of these western Orthodox churches suggests that the title of eastern Orthodox Church will become increasingly anachronistic.
The longings for an indigenous church are felt most keenly and expressed most strongly in the USA, where the openness to immigrants has led to the growth of Orthodox parishes of varied ethnic composition. In 1872 a Russian diocese was established in San Francisco, which quickly developed into a multi-ethnic church. Tikhon Bellavin, consecrated as bishop in 1898 at the age of thirty-three, formed new dioceses to include Arabs, Greeks, Serbs, Romanians and Albanians. In 1907 the dioceses held the first All-American Council, with decisions taken on a democratic basis.20 This unity disintegrated, in part because of the need of individual parishes to establish independence from a Russian church increasingly controlled by the Russian communist government. In 1950, Leonty Turkevich, who had served with Bishop Tikhon at the start of the century, became bishop and encouraged decentralisation, lay initiatives, the use of English in the liturgy and the admission of women into the seminaries. His example encouraged a sense of a distinctive American Orthodox Church life, and in 1967 the Orthodox Church of America (OCA) was formed - as the result of a name change away from the more cumbersome Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church of America. The Moscow patriarchate granted it autocephaly three years later in 1970. Unfortunately, other patriarchates did not follow Moscow's example, and the OCA remains unrecognised by most Orthodox. In spite of this, it is influential through its seminary, St Vladimir's, and its extensive publishing programme, together with its English-speaking church life. This expresses a strong tradition of indigenous American Orthodoxy which looks to the early Orthodox missionaries in Alaska, especially St Herman of Alaska, as well as to a full participation in modern American Christian life. In other parts of the west,
20 Bishop Tikhon became patriarch ofMoscow in 1917 and died under house arrest in 1929.
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