Ethiopia by the Oromo migrations of the sixteenth and seventeenth cen-turies.51 Following a pattern set by previous rulers of the province, Menilek moved southward, and, in 1874, settled at Entotto, on the hills above what is today Addis Ababa, founding a church dedicated to St Mary. It was here that he was crowned.52 In 1886 he moved downhill to create Ethiopia's modern capital city, where he founded in the early 1890s two churches, one dedicated to the Trinity and one to St George. It was in the latter that two of his successors, Zawditu (1916-30) and Haile Sellassie (Power of the Trinity) (1930-74), were to be crowned. The church of St George was, in Haile Sellassie's phrase, 'the royal church'.53 Perhaps the final incarnation of the royal church was the Trinity Church, Addis Ababa.54 Its rebuilding was one of the foundational acts of Haile Sellassie as emperor. He started the process in 1931, just after ascending the throne and assuming his regnal name, and completed it shortly after his restoration to power in 1941, following the Italian occupation which had begun with the invasion of 1935. It was here that, eventually, he was to be buried.

Christology and conflict55

Founding churches and granting land to existing foundations was one of the devices that Yohannes IV used in his attempt to unify the church after two and a half centuries of doctrinal, sectarian strife. Christological controversies internal to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church broke out at a council held in 1620, during the reign of Susenyos, and clearly had their origins in the ethos created by the Jesuits, who attacked the Ethiopian christological position as heretical.56

51 H. Marcus, The life and times ofMenelik II: Ethiopia 1844-1913 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975).

52 See Haile Gabriel Dagne, 'The establishment of churches in Addis Ababa', in Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Centenary of Addis Ababa, November 24-25, 1986, ed. Taddese Beyene (Addis Ababa: Institute of Ethiopian Studies, Addis Ababa University, 1987), 57-78.

53 The autobiography of Emperor Haile Sellassie I. 'My life and Ethiopia's progress' 1892-1937, ed. and trans. Edward Ullendorff (London: Oxford University Press, 1976), 175.

54 Haile Gabriel, 'Churches of Addis Ababa', 62-3.

55 See U. Zanetti, 'Christianity in the Ethiopian society', in EncyclopediaMthiopica, 1,723-8; J. L. Bandres and U. Zanetti, 'Christology', in ibid., 1, 728-32.

56 See A. Martinez, 'Paul and the other: the Portuguese debate on the circumcision of the Ethiopians', in Ethiopia and the missions: historical and anthropological insights, ed. V Boll et al. [Afrikanische Studien 25] (Mtinster: LIT Verlag, 2005). On the origins of the controversy, see Kindeneh, 'The role of Qebatoc , 50-1; Merid W. Aregay, 'The legacy of Jesuit missionary activities in Ethiopia', in The missionary factor in Ethiopia, ed. Getatchew Haile, A. Lande and S. Rubenson (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1998),

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