and refugees of Aleppo's bidonvilles. He was elected archbishop of Aleppo in 1959, and took part in all the sessions of the Second Vatican Council before succeeding to the patriarchate in 1968. In addition to revising all the liturgical books used in the Syrian Catholic rite, he was the moving force behind the construction of a new cathedral in Aleppo and, despite the war, both of the cathedral of the Annunciation and of the church of St Behnam in Beirut. During Hayek's patriarchate, the monastery of Our Lady of Deliverance at Sharfeh underwent major restoration, without losing any of its traditional character. He also had the foresight to establish Syrian Catholic missions in the USA, Canada, Australia, Venezuela and Sweden, as well as renewing the mission in Paris and restoring the procuratorship in Rome. Having served his church for thirty years, he resigned in 1998 at the age of eighty-eight, and was succeeded by Ignatius Musa I Da'ud, who was elected patriarch of the Syrian Catholic Church in 1998 and enthroned in the cathedral of Our Lady of the Annunciation in Beirut. During Da'ud's visit to Rome shortly afterwards, the pope chose to renew an old tradition. Rather than presenting a pallium to the newly appointed patriarch, John Paul II said that in order to 'recognise the dignity of the patriarchal duty' there would be a eucharistic concelebration, on the grounds that 'the Eucharist is by nature the symbol which best expresses full communion, of which it is, at the same time, the inexhaustible source'. The pope went on to say that 'this gesture, which will remain engraved in the memory of the faithful, will be repeated' whenever a new eastern patriarch visits the Vatican.18 On being appointed, in 2000, prefect for the congregation for Oriental churches,19 he resigned the patriarchal throne in 2001, but received the patriarchal title ad personam and was created cardinal-bishop.

The current holder of the title of patriarch of Antioch and all the East of the Syrians is Ignatius Buttus VIII. Born in 1930, at Aleppo, he was forced, like his predecessor, to leave Jerusalem and continue his studies at Sharfeh as a consequence of the Arab-Israeli conflict. His election to the see of Jerusalem and the Holy Land in 1996 was quickly followed by his election as patriarch by the synod meeting at Sharfeh in mid-February 2001. Concelebration of the liturgy with the pope in the Vatican the following June sealed his elevation to

18 See 'The Syrian Catholic Church', Eastern Churches Journal 6 (1999), 289-90.

19 The congregation for the Oriental churches, one of the offices of the Roman curia, was established in 1862 as part of the sacred congregation for the Propagation of the Faith and became an autonomous institution during the pontificate ofBenedict XV (1914-22). It has the same role with regard to bishops, clergy, religious and faithful in the eastern Catholic churches that other curial offices have in relation to the Latin Church. The congregation for the Oriental churches also oversees the Jesuit-directed Pontifical Oriental Institute in Rome, an important centre for eastern Christian studies.

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