the parish clergy and the lay confraternities. To provide the metropolitan see with adequate revenue, he retained control of the Caves monastery and took over the administration of two other monasteries in Kiev. Re-establishing the authority of the metropolitan also meant rebuilding the traditional centre of Orthodoxy in Rus, Kiev. Mohyla oversaw the restoration of the cathedral of St Sophia and several other churches. Moreover, his statements and the panegyrics of his school repeatedly emphasised his and his city's direct lineage from St Vladimir, the first Christian ruler of Rus.

Education lay at the heart of Mohyla's programme. While archimandrite, he had founded a school in the Caves monastery whose purpose was to introduce the highest contemporary standards of study and instruction, epitomised by Jesuit schools, into a thoroughly Orthodox setting. In Mohyla's world, those were the standards of Roman Catholic and Uniate elite culture, which placed special emphasis on mastery of Latin, Polish and Ukrainian-flavoured Slavonic. Although initially controversial for this reason, the monastery school, which was soon united with the school of the Kiev lay confraternity, won the support of the patriarch of Constantinople and of the Cossack leadership. The royal government soon followed suit. In 1635, King Wladyslaw's charter, however, did not fulfil Mohyla's aspirations since it gave approval for a 'school', not an academy, equal in standing to the Jesuit academies of the commonwealth.

The goal of the school was to prepare its graduates to defend Orthodoxy with the scholarly weapons of its rivals. Its curriculum closely followed established Catholic models. Instruction initially focused on languages - Latin, Polish, Greek and Slavonic - and proceeded to more complex verbal skills such as poetics and rhetoric. Advanced students were expected to master the most important literary genres of Latin-Polish culture. Under its charter, the school taught philosophy along Aristotelian models, but was not allowed to teach theology. Whether its curriculum depended too much on Roman Catholic models to be genuinely Orthodox, as some critics have argued, is beside the point: Mohyla and his collaborators used the only resources available in their time and place to train effective spokesmen for Orthodoxy.

Education and publishing went hand in hand. In strengthening his authority as metropolitan, Mohyla strove to make the Caves monastery the primary centre of Orthodox publishing in the commonwealth. Under his leadership, its press produced many editions, most importantly liturgical texts. Aware of the inconsistencies in existing editions, Mohyla's team of editors prepared new versions of the Sluzhebnik (Missal) in 1639 and the Trebnik (Sacramen-tary) in 1646, both ostensibly based on Greek and ancient Slavonic texts. In these publications, the editors achieved their goals of consistency, clarity and

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