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outstandingly good, which allowed the power and originality of Aquinas's works to make their impact.

The Latin sympathisers around Demetrios Kydones have been dismissed as men without lasting influence. This may be true of their role within Byzantium, but not of the impact they had on Byzantine relations with the west. In the face of the rapid advance of the Ottomans Demetrios Kydones engineered a rapprochement with the west. He was now the chief minister of John V Palaiologos (1341/54-91), who had secured Constantinople in 1354 with the aid of a Genoese adventurer Francesco Gattelusio, to whom he granted the island of Mytilene. With Kydones by his side the new emperor instituted a Latinophile regime and stubbornly pursued a unionist strategy. He made his intentions clear in a chrysobull of December 1355 addressed to Pope Innocent VI. It contained a request for military aid against an eventual union of churches. The emperor was realistic enough to admit that he was in no position to impose union, when the church was in the hands of the Palamites.39

The papacy received these overtures politely, but continued to insist on the old formula of no aid before conversion. And there it might have rested, had not Count Amadaeus of Savoy, a cousin of the emperor, led a crusade to his rescue. In 1366 Amadaeus first recovered the strategic crossing point of Gallipoli from the Ottomans. Next he brought his cousin back from Vidin on the Danube, where the latter had been marooned following an ill-advisedjourney to Buda to discuss cooperation against the Ottomans with the Hungarian king.40 At long last, the west had offered the Byzantine emperor solid military aid. He now had to demonstrate his good faith over the union of churches. He promised his cousin that he would travel as soon as conveniently possible to Rome to make his personal submission to the pope. In the meantime, he handed over substantial pledges to his cousin. This was only a start. The union of churches required the establishment of the exact differences separating the two churches. To this end the papal legate Paul of Smyrna debated the issues at an assembly presided over, in the absence of the patriarch, by the ex-emperor John Kantakouzenos, now the monk Joasaph. Kantakouzenos insisted that, whatever the differences, the union of churches must never be forced. It was

39 O. Halecki, UnempereurdeByzanceaRome:Vingtans de travailpourl'uniondes églises etpour la defense de l'Empire d'Orient 1355-1375 [Travaux historiques de la societe des sciences et des letters de Varsovie 8] (Warsaw: Société des sciences et des letters de Varsovie, 1930; reprinted London: Variorum, 1972).

40 E. L. Coxe, The Green Count of Savoy: Amadaeus Viand Transalpine Savoy in the fourteenth century (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967); J. Gill, 'John V Palaeologus at the court of Louis I of Hungary (1366)', BS 38 (1977), 31-8.

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