the whole apparatus of local synods from the fifth century which rejected the council of Chalcedon as crypto-Nestorian.81 Consequently, they demanded that Grigor refrain from all Chalcedonian contacts and desist from celebrating the feast of the Nativity with them on 25 December, but that he keep those feast days as ordained by St James; in other words, according to the early Jerusalem lectionary, from which Armenian practice derives.82 Here Orbelean waxed eloquent in the face of his superior's possible appeal to military intervention by the king: 'We are ready for suffering, exile, prison, and death to preserve the traditions of the apostolic Fathers. '83 He also made the appeal for the first time for the nobles who had gone to Cilicia to return to Greater Armenia and for the seat of the catholicate to return to its early site in the monastery of Ejmiacin.84

The new century witnessed a number of last ditch attempts to seal a grand Latin-Armenian-Mongol alliance against the Mamluks. In one of these the Ilkhan Ghazan initiated correspondence with the Christian powers in 1302, but to no avail. After an unsuccessful Mongol campaign in 1305 to stem Mamluk incursions, the Armenian noble Het'um of Korikos went west to pursue discussions, and in August 1307, while at Poitiers, he composed his Mongol history La flordes estoires de la terre d'orient at the request of Pope Clement V.85 In the same year, at papal insistence, another synod of Sis was held to ratify Anavarzec'i's theological and liturgical adjustments towards Roman orthodoxy.86 However, it was unrepresentative of the church as a whole, with hierarchs from Greater Armenia conspicuous by their absence. The vita of the conservative prelate Georg Skewrac'i notes widespread popular protest, which precipitated a series of deportations to Cyprus.87 The Mongol response can be gauged by the murder of King Levon III and his uncle Het'um II, now a Franciscan friar,

81 (Orbelean, Hakacarut'iwn snddëm erkabnakac', 16.

82 Athanase Renoux, Le codex arménien Jérusalem 121 [PO 36, fasc. 168] (Turnhout: Brepols, 1971), 166.

83 Orbelean, Hakacarut'iwn snddëm erkabnakac', 186.

84 Avedis K. Sanjian, 'Step'anos Orbelian's "Elegy on the holy cathedral of Etchmiadzin": critical text and translation', in Armenian and biblical studies, ed. M. E. Stone (Jerusalem: St James Press, 1976), 237-82.

85 D. Bundy, 'Het'um's la flordes estoires de la terre d'orient: a study in medieval Armenian historiography and propaganda', Revue des Etudes Arméniennes 20 (1986-87), 231-2. The final book sets out an abortive plan for cooperation with the Mongols.

86 A. Balgy, Historia doctrinae catholicae inter Armenos unionisque eorum cum ecclesia romana in concilioflorentino (Vienna: Mxit'arist Press, 1878), 301-12.

87 E. Baldasaryan, 'Gevorg Skevrac'u 'vark'a' [The life of Georg Skewrac'i], Banber Matenadarani 7 (1964), 399-435; D. Bundy, 'The anonymous life of Georg Skewrac'i in Erevan 8356: a study in medieval Armenian hagiography and history', Revue des Etudes Arméniennes 18 (1984), 491-502.

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