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had had Latin bishops at the time these cities came under Armenian con-trol.54 Another aspect of ecclesiastical interaction between the two states was Prince Levon's policy vis-a-vis the Jacobite community. In 1192 he appointed Theodore Bar Wahbun as anti-patriarch and attempted to have the Jacobite communities of the region submit to his jurisdiction.55 Antioch's gradual decline marked by its reduction in territory and forced union with Tripoli after Saladin's attack in 1187 favoured Levon's efforts to gain ascendancy over it through an astute policy of intermarriage. However, the competing claims of members of the Antiochian princely house, coupled with the interests of the Italian merchant communities, conspired to thwart him to the end of his reign.

Papal missionary initiatives

The missionary ethos of the two mendicant orders of Dominicans and Franciscans founded in the first half of the thirteenth century, combined with their structural flexibility, discipline and institutional organisation, rendered them an unprecedented spiritual force for proselytising among the Armenians and other eastern Christians and for furthering papal diplomacy. The Franciscans established various centres in Cilicia and played an increasingly important role as the century progressed, in various spheres including that of religious art.56 Het'um II (1289-1301), in particular, petitioned the pope for a personal retinue of six friars at court and later entered the brotherhood himself.57 The Dominicans made a slower start in establishing contacts, but became more pivotal in the following century.

This was the time of Mongol domination, which after initial upheavals worked to the benefit of the Armenian Church. From 1255 it was exempted from the payment of tax to the Mongols.58 Het'um I (1226-69) of Cilicia and several princes of Greater Armenia took the precaution of placing themselves under Mongol suzerainty, thus protecting their subjects from arbitrary

54 J. Richard, La papauté et les missions d'Orient au Moyen Age (XIIIe-XVe siècles) [Collection de l'Ecole francaise de Rome 33], second edition (Rome: Ecole francaise de Rome, 1998), 43, 49-50.

55 P. Kawerau, Diejakobitische Kirche im Zeitalter der syrischen Renaissance (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1955), 68-9.

56 H. Evans, 'Manuscript illumination at the Armenian patriarchate in Hromkla and the west', unpublished PhD thesis, New York Institute ofFine Arts (1989), 153-4.

57 Richard, Papaute, 52.

58 R. Bedrosian, 'Armenia during the Seljukand Mongol periods', in History of the Armenian people, ed. R. G. Hovannisian, 1, 261.

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