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New Rome/New Constantinople/New

New Year, medieval celebration of, 99

Newton, Isaac, 205

Nicholas ofVelikoretsk, St, 299

Nicholas IV (pope), 385, 423

Nicholas II (tsar), 34i, 342, 344, 35i, 353, 357, 358,

Nicholas-Alexander (voevoda and master of all

Oungrovlachia), 25-7 Nicholas of Andida, i3i

St Nicholas at Lipna, Novgorod (church), 278 Nikephoros (archbishop of Cyprus), 20i Nikephoros (exarch of church of

Constantinople), i94 Nikephoros II Phokas (emperor), 406 Nikephoros the Italian, i02-8, i22 Niketas (metropolitan of Thessalonike), 99 Nikifor, 320

Nikodemos (metropolitan of

Oungrovlachia), 40 Nikolai (Iarushevich), Russian metropolitan,

547, 548

Nikolai of Pskov, St, 258 Nikol'skii, Isidor, 340 Nikon of Radonezh, 289 Nikon (Russian patriarch) biographical information, 3i4 deposition of, 3i9 opposition to, 3i7-2i reforms of, 3i3-i8

relationship ofchurch and state and,

3i9-2i, 348

as successor to Hermogen's practices, 305 Nil Sorskii, 263, 269-7!, 294

'Nine Saints' ofEthiopian Christianity, 46i Niphon (ecumenical patriarch), 2i Nizhnii Novgorod, convent of the Exaltation of the Cross at, 340 Non-Possessors and Possessors, 269-7L 294 Norwich, John Julius, 586 notaries, feast of,93 Novgorod and Pskov art and religion in, 278-8i piety and culture in, 259, 265 Russian national consciousness, rise of,273 Tatar conquest, effects of, 277 Novi, Alevisio, 293

Novospasskii monastery, Moscow, 3i4 Nur al-Din, 4i0

Obnorsk, monastery of St Paul at, 293 Obolensky, Dimitri, 6-7, i2, 5i Obrenovic, Milan (king of Serbia), 236, 237 OCA (Orthodox Church of America), 592 occupations, lay devotions associated with,

Odoevskaia, Mariia, 265 Ogodei (Great Khan), 387 Ogorodnikov, Aleksandr, 572 Oikonomos, Constantine, 235 Old Apostolic and Catholic Church of the

East ('Old Calendarists'), 526 Old Believers under holy synod, 328, 33i, 336,347 lay piety and religious experience

origins in schism of i666-67,32i-2,324 Old Testament Trinity icon (Rublev), 289-9! Olga, St, 274

Olgerd, Grand Duke of Lithuania, 28-3i Oljeitu (Ilkhan of Iran), 423 Optina monastery, Russia, 248, 338,352 Orbeli, Yohan, 424 Oe rbeelean, Step'anos, 42i, 425 organisational and administrative problems of modern Orthodoxy, 596-7 Ori, Israyel, 439 Orkhan (Sultan), i56-9 Orkneys, earl of,and Arnor the Earl's Poet, 3 Oromo migrations, Ethiopian Christianity affected by, 463, 47i, 474, 475, 477, 478, 487

Orotnec'i, Yovhan, 428 Orsini family of Epiros, 70 Orthodox Church of America (OCA), 592 Ossorguine, Serge and Mikhail, 556 Ostrih Bible, 303

Ostrozsky, Kostiatyn, 303 Otchizna neizvestnaia (The Unknown

Homeland), Fr Pavel, 568 Otets Sergii (Fr Sergii) (film), 362 Otto (king of Greece), 234 Ottomans and Orthodox Church. See also Mount Athos under Ottoman rule archontes, role of,i77-8,180,183 Armenians, 430-i, 439-4i, 444, 449-50. See also Armenian Christianity Bars'kyjon, 226

Bulgarian exarchate, creation of,24i conquest of Constantinople (i453), 78, i70 conversions to Islam, i8i-2 crises of i798 affecting, 206, 207 early modern decline of Orthodoxy under

Ottomans, i86, i9i -3 ecumenical patriarchate authority of, i78-9 of Cyril I Loukaris, i97 eastern patriarchates and, i84 financial obligations towards Ottoman state, i75-8 landed property of,i80 re-establishment of, i70-3 reorganisation of,i73-5 restoration of, i70-3 revenue sources, i79-80 as significant part of Ottoman system, i84

emperor as pole of Orthodox Church, removal of, i69 before the final conquest of Constantinople, i69-70 greater unity of Orthodoxy provided by conquest of entire empire, i70 Greek Revolution (i82i), ethnomartyrs of, 230

hesychasm and, 69, i59

Islamic principles of religious tolerance of

Jews and Christians, i55-6, i69 Latin vs. Ottoman conquest, Byzantine views of, 69, i59, i70, iyi, i85 Maritsa, battle of (i37i), 68, i60, i62 millet, 440, 44i, 442

nationalist upsurge in Ottoman politics,

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