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Filaret immediately made clear that the Printing House would continue to publish new editions ofthe liturgicalbooks prepared by the best native scholars. Accordingly, at the urging of Patriarch Theophanes, he pardoned the disgraced editors and sent them back to work. Filaret remained vigilant for signs of heretical Latin influence. He refused to publish the catechism of the militant defender of Orthodoxy in Ukraine, Lavrentii Zyzanii; condemned the Evangelie uchitel'noe (Gospels with commentary) of Kyryl Tranquillon Stavrovetsky - a work also condemned by the metropolitan of Kiev - and attempted to prohibit the importation of all books from the commonwealth. The patriarch's caution meant that the Pechatnyi Dvor published a very modest number of books in his lifetime. But, by settingthe programme in motion and assemblingthe scholars, he laid the groundwork for the flowering of ecclesiastical publishing under his unimposing successors, Ioasaf I (1634-40) and Iosif (1642-52).3 From the late 1630s to the early 1650s, the Pechatnyi Dvor published new editions of the most important service books, a number of saints' lives and uncontroversial classics of eastern Christian spirituality such as writings of St John Chrysostom, St Ephraim the Syrian and St John Klimax.

Peter Mohyla

The revitalisation of Orthodoxy in Ukraine reached its culmination under Peter Mohyla, metropolitan of Kiev (1632-47). Of Moldavian princely origin, Mohyla saw himself both as a member of the nobility and ecclesiastical elite of the entire Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and as an ardent defender of eastern Orthodoxy. His consecration immediately followed Wladyslaw IV's decision to recognise the right of the Orthodox Church to its own hierarchy. Mohyla, the archimandrite of the monastery of the Caves in Kiev, had the support of the nobility in Ukraine and the king. From the moment of his consecration in 1633, he showed his determination to put the church's house in order: he moved quickly, for example, to neutralise his predecessor, Isaia Kopynsky, a favourite of the Cossacks, whom the royal government had never recognised.

Mohyla reshaped the Orthodox Church in Ukraine. For models he had only to look to the recent successes of Roman Catholicism and Metropolitan Rutsky's reforms of the Uniate Church. Mohyla waged his reform campaign on many fronts. He worked hard to strengthen his authority over the bishops,

3 Pascal, Avvakum, 8-14, 21-4; Zenkovsky, Russkoe staroobriadchestvo, 91-6; Kartashev, Ocherki, 11, 85-94; K. V Kharlampovich, Malorossiiskoe vliianie na velikorusskuiu tserkovnuiu zhizn' (The Hague and Paris: Mouton, 1968), 103-12.

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