in the Cilician body politic weakened the social fabric of the realm. Repeated Mamluk attacks hastened the decline of the local economy and the renewed exodus of the merchant and artisan population.115 Links with the Genoese trading posts on the Black Sea, for example, encouraged the growth of Armenian colonies in the Crimea and in the hinterlands to the north and west, leading to the expansion of colonies such as that of L'viv, whose growing importance was recognised by its elevation to the status of an episcopal see in mid-century.116

The situation of Greater Armenia became increasingly unstable with the decline of the Mongol Ilkhans from the 1330s onward, opening up a power vacuum facilitating the disastrous Timurid invasions of the last two decades of the century. Despite this, a resurgence of the Armenian Apostolic Church is manifest there under the forceful monastic leadership of Malak'ia Lrimec'i. This, combined with the skill in argument of Yovhan Orotnec'i (d. 1387) and his pupil Grigor Tat'ewac'i, helped to regain the momentum from the Fratres Unitores.117 Their works oppose doctrines such as purgatory and defend the traditional Armenian christological position. At the same time, Grigor's theological compendium, the Book of Questions of 1397, attests the impact of Aquinas's sacramental theology and Hugh Ripelin's angelology and demonology.118 Moreover, his other main writings, two volumes of sermons and a Oskep'orik, or treasury, of 1407, similarly reveal his familiarity with the views of Augustine, Isidore and Ibn Rushd (Averroes), etc., presumably mediated by translations made by the Fratres Unitores.119

The logical conclusion of this phase of internal Armenian dialogue on union with Rome played itself out at the council of Florence at which the Decretum pro Armenis of 22 November 1439 was ratified by catholicos Kostandin VI Vahkac'i on behalf of the church.120 However, this decisive demarche in turn provoked an equally swift, unequivocal retort from influential members ofthe

115 T. Sinclair, 'Cilicia after the kingdom: population, monasteries, etc. under the Mamluks', in UCLA International Conference Series on historic Armenian cities and provinces: Cilicia, in press.

116 Richard, Papauté, 92; Donabédian and Thierry Armenian art, 270.

117 Van den Oudenrijn, 'The Monastery of Aparan', 284-96.

118 Sergio La Porta, 'Grigor Tat'ewac'i's Book of Questions: introduction, translation, and commentary - vol. 3: the theology of the Holy Dionysius', unpublished PhD thesis, Harvard University (2001), 117. See also Nona Manukyan, 'The role of Bartolomeo di Bologna's sermonary in medieval Armenian literature', LeMuséon 105 (1992), 321-5.

119 Grigor Tat'ewac'i, Girk' or koci oskëp'orïk [Book called Miscellany] (Constantinople: Abraham Dpir, 1746), 9-143.

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