1948 enjoining patriotic clergy abroad to fight all traitors encoded a particular political agenda. Similarly, his participation in the Stockholm Peace Appeal of the same year furthered Soviet objectives regarding the peace movement.69

Building on earlier internal tensions within the Armenian polity, the increased polarisation between capitalist and communist ideologies produced a growth of factionalism within the Armenian diaspora. Armenian immigration to the USA expanded enormously in the years leading up to and following the genocide, requiring its own hierarchical representation. One of the upper clergy, Archbishop Leon Durean, was denounced as pro-Soviet by political opponents and murdered in the Holy Cross Church, New York, on Christmas Eve 1933. Despite attempts at conciliation, the rupture did not heal, but found expression in schism through the creation of parallel jurisdictions.

Similar political divisions among the Armenians of Lebanon, at the time the largest diaspora community, occasioned a delay of four years after the death of Garegin Yovsep'eanc' before the election of a successor to the catholicate of Cilicia. Complicating the process was the intervention of the catholicate of Ejmiacin. Catholicos Vazgen Palycan embarked on a visit to the Middle East in the early spring of 1956. Arriving in Lebanon a few days before the election of his counterpart, he sought to postpone the final choice.70 Nevertheless, the election proceeded, with Bishop Zareh P'ayaslean of Aleppo approved by the majority vote. Tensions between the primatial sees spilled over into the dioceses under their supervision. Over the next few decades the see of Kuwait and the Arab Gulf together with thoseofGreece and Iran passed under Cilician jurisdiction, while the see of Damascus moved to the jurisdiction of Ejmiacin, and parallel jurisdictions developed in the three sees of North America.71

The Armenian Church and the ecumenical movement

In 1962 the World Council of Churches extended membership to both catholi-cates of the Armenian Church, which later sent spectators to Vatican II. Both Catholicos Garegin Sargisean of Cilicia and his current successor Aram K'esisean (1995-) have assumed central executive roles in the WCC. From 1964 to 1971 membership of the WCC Faith and Order Commission encouraged representatives of the different Orthodox churches to hold a series of informal

69 Matossian, Impact of Soviet policies, 194-5.

70 Kolarz, Religion in the Soviet Union, 171-5.

71 For the background to Palycan's 1960 visit to the west, see ibid., 175.

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