John's brother Isaac Komnenos was buried in Thrace at the monastery of the Virgin Kosmosoteira which he had founded in 1152; icons of the Virgin and of Christ were to be set up permanently alongside his tomb, and the monks of the monastery were to pass by the tomb daily, and 'in front of the holy icons standing there' say prayers for his soul.58 The icons in these cases had no specific liturgical function, but they provided a focus for the intercessory prayers at the tomb, whether these were yearly or daily. This documentary evidence for the Comnenian period is intriguing, in that it implies a relation of icon to actual liturgical rite at an earlier time than we would suspect if relying on the visual or liturgical sources alone.

The architectural setting of tombs such as these, mainly arcosolia (wall niches) over the grave, bore painted and/or sculpted decoration, but the themes depicted are generally concerned with salvation, not with the funeral rite itself.59

The liturgy of the Hours

Text and image in manuscripts of the Divine Office The greatest contribution of monasticism to the development of the Byzantine liturgy is its hymnody, which reached Constantinople in the early ninth century, with the Palestinian monastic cursus. The horologion, the Byzantine Book of Hours, is attested in manuscripts from the ninth century on; it provides texts for each of the main Hours of the day (prime, terce, sext, none), together with those for orthros, vespers and apodeipnon (compline). It is rarely illustrated: only two extant horologia have any sort of extended programme of illustration: one of the late twelfth century now on Lesbos, with an office for each hour of the day, and another dating to the fifteenth century, of Cretan origin, but now in Baltimore.60 In both these cases the illustration is essentially borrowed from other types of manuscripts: the biblical canticles for orthros, for example, are illustrated with traditional ode compositions well known from Psalter manuscripts. In the Baltimore horologion, the Hours of terce, sext and none are illustrated with scenes of Pentecost, Crucifixion and Lamentation respectively,

58 Thomas and Hero, 11, 839.

59 S. Brooks, 'Sculpture of the late Byzantine tomb', in Faith andpower, 95-103; E. Velkovska, 'Funeral rites according to Byzantine liturgical sources', DOP 55 (2001), 21-45.

60 Lesbos, Leimonos 295. See P. Vokotopoulos,''H EiKovoypa^qaq toO Kavovosds^uxop-payoOvTa ctto 'OpoAoyiov 295 Tfs jovfs Aeijwvos', ZujjsiKTa9 (1994), 95-114. One image in the Lesbos Horologion (p. 222) shows what appear to be monks assembling for a service at the doors of a church. Baltimore, Walters W534. See N. P. Sevcenko, 'The Walters' Horologion', Journal of the Walters Art Museum 62 (2004), 7-21.

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