succeeded in a matter of months by Gregory of Cyprus (1283-89), one of those who had turned from support for union to principled opposition. His choice as patriarch emphasises that ending the union of Lyons was an inside job: the work of men, such as the chief minister Theodore Mouzalon, who had originally favoured the union. They realised that polemical tracts of the 'Errors of the Latins' variety were all very well for the streets of Constantinople, but they still had to win the theological battle against John Bekkos. The latter had given sound reasons for supposing that the Latin position on the procession of the Holy Spirit had strong support in the Greek patristic view that procession entailed God the Father working through the Son. It needed somebody of Gregory of Cyprus's intellectual stature to reframe Orthodox teaching on this doctrine.21

Gregory was able to vindicate a distinctive Orthodox position. He took as his starting point a detailed examination of the exact meaning ascribed to the phrase through the Son by the Greek Fathers. This, he maintained, did not apply to the procession of the Holy Spirit, but to its manifestation both in time and throughout eternity. In other words, it had no relevance to the causation of the Holy Spirit, which was the work of God the Father alone - the Orthodox position. It referred instead to the exercise of divine grace. In this way Gregory of Cyprus was able to discredit Bekkos's insistence that the Greek Fathers provided support for the Latin position on the procession of the Holy Spirit. At the same time Gregory put special emphasis on the working of God's grace, which followed from the contrast he drew between the procession and the manifestation of the Holy Spirit. Implicit in this line of thought was a distinction between the essence and the energies within the Godhead. This provided the point of departure for Gregory Palamas's formulations, which, as we shall see, distinguished Orthodox and Latin teaching on the Trinity still more radically.

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