St Sergii blessed Dmitrii's 1380 venture,2 nor was the battle a decisive victory -the Tatars continued to exact tribute from the Russian lands until the late fifteenth century. The society and culture that emerged under Ivan IV 'the Terrible'3 (1530-84) in the later sixteenth century was formed by the complex interactions of various groups and ideological influences. The special status accorded the Russian Church by the pagan and subsequently Islamic Golden Horde; the spiritual currents of bogomilism and hesychasm flowing from the Balkans and Byzantium; the trading relationship with the German Hansa; these

2 See for example John Fennell, A history of the Russian church to 1448 (London: Longman, 1995), 238-9.

3 Groznyi, more accurately 'the Awesome'.

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