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autocephaly of Greek Church, declaration and settlement of,235-7 civil authority, Orthodoxy as object of interest to, 232 dominant religion, Orthodoxy officially recognised as, 231 ecclesiastical settlement following, 233-7 ecumenical patriarchate autocephaly rejection and resolution of, 236

continuing canonical dependence, early insistence of Greek bishops on, 231-2 loosening of administrative control of, 230

Patriarch Agathangelos's desire for resubmission to Sublime Porte, 233 ethnomartyrs of, 230

Latin-Orthodox relations affected by, 209 nationalism as 19th-century phenomenon affecting Orthodoxy generally, 229 Greek speakers, arabisation of,390 Gregoras, Nikephoros, 19, 62, 63,101,125 Gregory VII (pope), 410 Gregory IX (pope), 384 Gregory X (pope), 57 Gregory XIII (pope), i85, i88 Gregory V (ecumenical patriarch), 206, 208, 229, 230, 246 Gregory VI (ecumenical patriarch), 241 Gregory ofCyprus, 6i Gregory of Derkoi, 230 Gregory the Illuminator (Gregory of

Gregory ofNazianzos, homilies of, i39 Gregory Palamas. See Palamas, Gregory Gregory of Sinai

Greek-Latin relations and, 64 hesychasm in Russia and, 262 life and significance of, i08 Palamas compared to, i2i prayer manuals of, i08-i0 Slavonic textual community and, 38 Words of,ii3-2i Gregory Tsamblak, 37 Grek, Maksim. See Maksim Grek Grenkov, Amvrosii, 338 Gribanovskii, Anastasii, 548 Grigor II (Armenian catholicos), 407,

409, 4i0

Guarino ofVerona, 7i Gumilevskii, Aleksandr, 337 Gumilevskii, Filaret, 330, 33i Gurskyj, Ruvym, 2i7

Gutenberg revolution. See also books, art and religion; printing and publishing Gynaikokastro, chapel in fortifications at, 82

Habta Maryam (Ethiopian bishop), 487 Haga, Cornelius, i97, i98 hagiography Armenian, 409

ecclesiastical rites illustrated in, i45 Epifanii the Wise, writings of,44, 262, 268, 283

liturgical year regulated by, i4i-3 in Russia (i380-i589), 262, 263

Haile Sellassie I (Ethiopian ruler), 467, 476, 482-7

al-Hakim (Fatimid caliph), 376,382 Hanseatic League, Rus relationship with, 254 Harald Sigurdson (Norwegian king), 408 al-Harawl, 402

Hatti-Sherif (Noble Rescript) of i839, 440 Hayek, Ignatius Antony II (Syrian Catholic patriarch), 5i7 Hayq Estifanos (St Stephen), Ethiopian monastery of, 468, 473, 48i Heavenly (or Divine or Celestial) Liturgy, iconography of,i37 Helms, Mary, i2, 33 Herberstein, Sigismund von, 258 heresy. See heterodoxy and heresy Herman of Alaska, St, 592 Hermogen (Russian patriarch), 305 Herzen, Alexander, 357 hesychasm, i0i-2. See also Gregory ofSinai; Mount Athos; Palamas, Gregory; Palamism; Philokalia Adam as first practitioner of, ii6 asceticism vs., i02, i09 Barlaam of Calabria on, i0i, i02, ii0-i3, i20, i24. See also Barlaam of Calabria early criticism of, 66, 68, i08 intellectual activity vs., i02 Barlaam the Calabrian, ii0-i3 Gregory of Sinai's Words, ii3-2i Palamas, Gregory, i2i-6 Messalian heresy and, i24 modern renewal of interest in, 588-9 monastic practices criticised by i02 Nikephoros the Italian on, i02-8, i22 Ottoman rule and, 69, i59 Pseudo-Symeon on, i02-8, i09, i22 rationality

Gregory of Sinai on, ii3-2i Palamas on, i2i rise to dominance in medieval Orthodoxy, 62-4

Romanian communism, flourishing under, 565-6

Slavonic textual community of Byzantine

Commonwealth and, 39 spiritual development of monks, according to Gregory of Sinai, ii8 Hesychios, i04, i06

heterodoxy and heresy See also folk customs and superstitions, persistence of Bogomils, 47, i24, 254

in eastern Christianities under Islam

(iith-i4th centuries), 373 in Russia i380-i589, 255-60 i72i-i9i7, 365

holy synod, religious toleration under,

Judaisers, 259-60, 294 St Nils Sorskii and St Iosif of

Volokolamsk as persecutors of,27i Old Believers. See Old Believers strigol'niki or Shearers, 259, 294 Het'um I (Armenian king), 387, 4i8 Het'um II (Armenian king), 4i7, 420, 422,

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