other incidents of miraculous deliverance, including the Tatar retreat from Ugra river after a confrontation with Ivan III's army in 1480 and the decision on 23 June 1521 of the Crimean, Nogai and Kazan Tatars not to attack Moscow after they received a vision of many troops defending the city.33 The icon was one of several holy objects associated with the notion of translatio imperii: in this case the migration of a twelfth-century icon from Constantinople signifying the transfer of the protection of the Mother of God to Moscow.34
The earliest surviving examples of Moscow icon-painting date from the years following Toktamysh's raid of 1382, when Russian and foreign painters carried out commissions for Metropolitan Kiprian (1390-1406) and others to replace lost works. Common features in Moscow icons of the 'golden age' include elongated bodies, small hands and feet, calm, static poses, and a harmonious interplay of pure colours.35 Among the artists attracted to Moscow in the late fourteenth century was Feofan Grek (Theophanes the Greek, c. i340-c. 1410) from Constantinople.36 His early art bore the mark of the so-called Palaiologan Renaissance in the Byzantine Empire. Feofan's most famous works were painted in Novgorod in 1378 for the church of the Transfiguration on Il'in Street. The frescos, which include an Old Testament Trinity, are highly stylised, 'expressionistic' and dynamic, created with free brush strokes, muted colours and white highlights. In the Moscow Kremlin Feofan is thought to have worked in the churches of the Nativity of the Mother of God (1395), the Archangel Michael (1399) and the Annunciation (1405), which was the princes' chapel royal. Icons from the Deesis row of the latter have been attributed to him, including the Saviour, the Mother of God and John the Baptist.37 Also credited to his workshop are the famous icon ofthe Mother ofGod ofthe Don with the Dormition on the reverse and the Transfiguration from Pereislavl', in which bluish light emanates from Christ and falls on the disciples' clothing.38
33 Moskva, eia sviatyni, 76.
34 See J. Billington, The icon and the axe (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1966), 32.
35 The art of Holy Russia, 45.
36 The most detailed account of Feofan's career is a letter (c.i4i0) by Epifanii the Wise. On Feofan, see V N. Lazarev, Feofan Grek i ego shkola (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1961); M. V Alpatov Feofan Grek (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1979); G. I. Vzdornov, Feofan Grek, Tvorcheskoe nasledie (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1983).
37 See Engelina Smirnova, Moscow icons, i4th-ijth centuries (Oxford: Phaidon, 1989), 263-4, for a discussion of these disputed attributions.
38 Alpatov Early Russian icon painting, plates 59-66.
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