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number of Orthodox population and functioning sees, i8i overthrow of sultan and establishment of modern Turkey 449 Safavids, Ottoman struggle with, 435, 437 surgun (compulsory resettlement), i7i taxes ecumenical patriarchate's financial obligations towards Ottoman state, i75-8

kharadj tax on non-Muslims, conversion to Islam as way of relieving, i8i patriarchal, i79-80 'ulema, threat to Orthodox position from, i83-4

Oungrovlachia, see of,25-7 Oviedo, Andre de, 477

Paes, Pero, 477

Pafnutiev-Borovskii monastery Russia, 270,

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