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of their failure to condemn Loukaris himself. To counter these strictures the metropolitan of Kiev Peter Moghila composed and published in Amsterdam in 1667 another confession of Orthodox faith, with the approval of the four patriarchs of the Orthodox Church.

Despite the voluminous source material and an extensive scholarly debate, definitive judgement of Loukaris's position remains an open challenge for historians. There is no doubt that his western contacts, his critical perception of the condition of his church and, in the final analysis, his Christian faith itself motivated his genuine desire to revive Orthodoxy through a renewal of the faith. In this quest - apparently on an entirely personal level - Loukaris flirted with Protestant ideas. But it seems unlikely that Loukaris as patriarch even considered the possibility of deviating from strict Orthodoxy by imposing Protestant views on the Orthodox Church. In this, modern academic theologians and historians concur with the judgement of earlier chronographers who expressed the authentic attitude of the Orthodox Church.25 So what did the Reformation mean for Loukaris, how did it influence his pastoral attitude and ecclesiastical strategy, and how did it shape his vision of the Orthodox Church? It seems that at a time of crisis and decline and of relentless Catholic pressure Loukaris glimpsed in the Reformation not only an ally against Catholicism but also a model and a challenge for the reconstruction of Orthodoxy. Loukaris never conceded the Reformation's claims to Orthodoxy, not even in its Calvinist version, but recognised that it had opened up a path to Christian renewal. He was accordingly prepared in some areas of Christian practice to follow the Protestant lead, as his blessing for the translation of the New Testament into modern Greek suggests.

The translation was probably the patriarch's most important pastoral initiative. The task was entrusted in 1629 to the learned hieromonk Maximos Rodios from Gallipoli (hence known as Kallioupolitis), a former student of Korydalleus at the patriarchal academy and a devoted follower of Loukaris. While working on the translation Maximos resided in the Dutch Embassy and collaborated closely with Leger. As a model for his translation he used Diodati's modern Italian version of the New Testament. By 1632 the Dutch ambassador informed his government that the translation had been completed, but it still needed revisions against the original. The translator Maximos, however, died unexpectedly on 24 September 1633 without putting the finishing touches to his work. These were left to Leger and to Loukaris himself but publication in

25 V Stephanidis, 'EkkAtio~io:o~tiki) laTopia, fourth edition (Athens: Astir, 1978), 707.

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