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Diasporas, each with a different ethnic and ecclesiological basis from anything that had previously prevailed. Migrations of Orthodox populations to one part of the world or another occurred for a variety of reasons. These no longer formed a unified and well-defined diaspora, which was loyal to some single mother-church. Determining the character of each was rather a combination of disparate origins and prospects with the evolution in situ of separate church administrations. Even where the...

Th rise of hesychasm

During the third and fourth decades of the fourteenth century, at a time when the rapidly shrinking Byzantine Empire suffered greatly from internal strife, the Orthodox Church was rocked by an acrimonious controversy. This controversy ultimately led to a redefinition of traditional Trinitarian dogma as it had been formulated in late antiquity in 1351 a church synod decreed that not only the transcendent being of God was in the true sense divine but also his operations or energies in this world,...

Eastern Christianities eleventh to fourteenth century Copts Melkites Nestorians and Jacobites

The Coptic, Melkite, Nestorian and Jacobite communities possessed distinctive features, which set them apart from the other Orthodox churches studied in this volume. The first - and not the least important - was their establishment in countries which were under Muslim - and not Christian - rule. This was in complete contrast to the situation existing in the Byzantine Empire and in the kingdoms of Armenia and Georgia to the north, or in Nubia and Ethiopia to the south. A consequence of this was...

ViThe Latin Church and the crusades

D. von den, Die 'Nationes Christianorum Orientalium' im Verst ndnis der lateinischen Historiographie von der Mitte des 12. bis in die zweite Halfte des 14. Jahrhunderts Kolner historische Abhandlungen 22 (Cologne Bohlau, 1973) Cahen, C., 'Notes sur l'histoire de l'Orient latin i - En quoi la conquete turque appelait-elle la croisade ', Bulletin de la Facult des Lettres de Strasbourg 21 (1950-51), 118-25 Cahen, C., Turcobyzantina et Oriens Christianus (London Variorum, 1974), c...

General works

Architectures of Russian identity, 1500 to the present, ed. J. Cracraft and D. Rowland (Ithaca, NY and London Cornell University Press, 2003) Art of Holy Russia icons from Moscow 1400-1660 (London Royal Academy of Arts, 1998) Bercken, Wil van den, Holy Russia and Christian Europe East and West in the religious ideology of Russia (London SCM Press, 1999) Between tsar and people educated society and the quest for public identity in late imperial Russia, ed. Edith W. Clowes, Samuel D. Kassow and...

S Peter Cowe

The defining issue for Christendom in the period under discussion was undoubtedly one of ecclesiology. In the case of the Armenians this took the form of renewed debate with the other Christian traditions which had emerged in Byzantium, western Europe and the Near East in the course of late antiquity, when a common patristic matrix developed distinct constellations of doctrine, rite and order with characteristic emphases, forms and expressions. The onset of the Arab period in Armenian history...

Envisaging an imperial order

Some of the envoys sent by the ecumenical patriarchate to the lands of Rus held offices in other eastern churches, for example Michael, archbishop of Bethlehem. They were living testimony to an imperial scheme of things, as was the readiness of eastern Mediterranean churchmen to refer local disputes 71 See Helms, Craft and the kingly ideal, 173-80, 192-6. 72 G. Majeska, Russian travelers to Constantinople in the fourteenth andfifteenth centuries DOS 19 (Washington, DC Dumbarton Oaks Research...

Primary sources

C'amCean, Mik'ayel, Hayoc'patmut'iwn History of the Armenians , 3 vols. (Venice, 1784-86 reprinted Erevan Erevani hamalsarani hratarakut'yun, 1984) Conciliationis ecclesiae Armenae cum Romana, ed. Clemens Galanus (Rome Urban Press, 1650) Esayi Nc'ec'i, 'T'ult' Esayeay vardapeti ar tier Matt'eos' Letter of the vardapet Esayi to the Lord Matt'eos C'rak'al (i860), 157-64 (1861), 205-11 Frik, Frik Diwan, ed. Tirayr Melik' Muskambarean (New York Melgonean Foundation, Girk' or koc'i oskep'orik Book...

Art and liturgy in the later Byzantine Empire

It is generally assumed that by the eleventh century the text of the Byzantine liturgy was well established and was performed in a consistent manner throughout much ofthe Greek-speakingworld. Forthe Eucharist, this assumption is essentially true, though some evolution was still to take place with the widespread adoption of the Eucharistic liturgy of John Chrysostom in preference to that of St Basil and with the expansion of the prothesis rite, that is, the prefatory rite before the beginning of...

On the eve

The aftermath of the council of Florence demonstrated once again the unwillingness of Byzantine society to follow its leaders down the path of union. The career of George Scholarios, the future Patriarch Gennadios, provides testimony of the strength of anti-unionism.61 Still a layman he was added to the Byzantine delegation to the council. He was selected on the strength of his expertise as a scholastic theologian. He knew Latin well. He had also experienced the hostility that learning Latin...

Lifecycle rituals

In addition to lifecycle rituals observed in the home, other rites of passage brought laymen and women into the church and engaged them in pious practices. Children were baptised within the church and were given names that derived primarily from the church calendar, most often names of saints, but occasionally with reference to Christ, the Virgin or feasts. The naming of a child established a close association between the name bearer and the name saint, a fundamental bond that would guide a...

The Syriac churches Jacobite and Nestorian

Abuna, Albir, Ta'r kh al-kan sa al-s ryaniyya al-sharqiyya, 3 vols. (Beirut al-Mashraq, 1992-93) Allard, M., 'Les chr tiens a Bagdad', Arabica 9 (1962), 375-88 Chabot, J.-B., 'Les v ques jacobites du VlIIe au XlIIe si cle d'apr s la chronique de Michel le Syrien', Revue de l'Orient Chr tien 4 (1899), 444-52, 512-42 5 (1900), 605-36 6 (1901), 189-220 Dauvillier, J., 'Les provinces chaldeennes de l'exterieur au Moyen Age', in M langes F. Cavallera (Toulouse Bibliotheque de l'Institut catholique,...

Sources

Argyriou, Asterios, Macaire Makres et la polemique contre l'Islam dition princeps de l'eloge de Macaire Makr s et de ses deux uvres anti-islamiques Studi e testi 314 (Vatican Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, 1986) Canart, Paul, 'Nicephore Blemmyde et le memoire adresse aux envoyes de Gr goire IX (Nicee, 1234)', OCP 25 (1959), 310-25 Fyrigos, Antonis, Barlaam Calabro Opere contro i Latini Studi e testi 347-8 , 2 vols. (Vatican Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, 1998) Gill, Joseph, Quae supersunt...

John Binns

The study of Christian spirituality investigates the self-understanding, the identity and the mode of operation of the church. It is founded on the church's formation narratives, which identify its foundation with the gift of the Holy Spirit. This is clear from the fourth gospel, which tells how, on the day of the Resurrection, Christ breathed on his disciples with the words 'receive the Holy Spirit' (John 20 22), while St Luke recounts how, on the day of Pentecost, the mission of the church...

IiThe Coptic Church

Amelineau, E., La geographie de l'Egypte a l' poque copte (Paris Imprimerie nationale, i893) Bourguet, P. du, Les Coptes Que-Sais-Je 2398 (second edition, Paris Presses universitaires de France, i992) Butler, A. J., The ancient Coptic churches of Egypt, 2 vols. (Oxford Clarendon Press, 1884) Cannuyer, C., Les Coptes Coll. Fils d'Abraham (Turnhout Brepols, 1996) Coptic Egypt the Christians of the Nile New Horizons (London Thames and Hudson, 2000) Chauleur, S., Histoire des Coptes d'Egypte (Paris...

Secondary works

C., 'The Lordgiveth and the Lord taketh away Athos and the confiscation affair of 1568-1569', in Mount Athos in the 14th-16th centuries A mvik S mJsiKTa 4 (Athens Institute for Byzantine Research, 1997), 149-200 Alexandropoulou, Olga, Aiov aio I rpiTrs Kai to pyo tou laTopia Tr s 'Paaia (Heraklion Bikelaia Demotike Bibliotheke, 1994) Berindei, M. and Veinstein, G., L'Empire ottoman et les pays roumains, 1544-1545 (Paris Editions de l'Ecole des hautes etudes en...

Simon Dixon

Under pressure ofrevolutionary upheaval, the system ofRussian ecclesiastical government established by Peter I in 1721 was swiftly dismantled in 1917. On 5 August the Provisional Government abolished the holy synod. Ten days later, an all-Russian church council gathered in Moscow in the hope of securing strong leadership in troubled times. Having determined to restore the patriarchate before the Bolshevik seizure of power, the delegates drew lots on 5 November to appoint Metropolitan Tikhon...

Christian Orthodox Category Iiib

Ancient canons but were moved by 'a desire for novelty', putting in serious jeopardy proper ecclesiastical order 7 The crisis of the holy chrism delayed for three years the canonical recognition of autocephaly to which Romania, as a sovereign kingdom, was now entitled. This was only granted after the head of the Romanian Church, Kallinikos ofHungro-Wallachia, in agreement with the Romanian government, wrote to the patriarch Joachim IV, who on 25 April i885 duly acceded to their request for...

Manuscript Hymn Akathistos

Manuscript Hymn Akathistos

Eight-week cycles the sticherarion or collection of short poetic pieces arranged chronologically by feast day very occasionally have some form of illustration. In an octoechos in Messina, the stichera anastasima are prefaced by unusual images of the presumed author of the octoechos, John of Damascus. This imagery has no roots in other manuscript illustration and is certainly a free and unusual improvisation on the monastic text.64 Monastic services were made up of hymns of varying lengths,...

Joseph Bryennios

Joseph I ecumenical patriarch , 57, 60 Joseph II ecumenical patriarch , 73 Joseph II Yusuf Chaldean patriarch , 527 Kallinikos of Hungro-Wallachia head of Romanian church , 240 Kallinikos V ecumenical patriarch , 208 Kallistos ecumenical patriarch , 2i, 26,38, 39, 43, i25 Kallistos ofDiokleia Timothy Ware , 588 Kalojan of Bulgaria, i6 Kalopheros, John Laskaris, 70 Kalothetos, Joseph, i25 al-Kal mil Ayyubid sultan , 379 Kantakouzena, Katerina, i64 Kantakouzenos, Michael, i77, i90 Kapiton...

Michael Bqurdeaux And Alexandru Popescu

The two Russian revolutions of 1917 March and October found the Russian Orthodox Church poised to embark on its own programme of reform. It was always the policy of Lenin Vladimir Il'ich Ulianov and the Bolsheviks to portray the state religion as benighted, clinging to the past, upholding outmoded values. Because of believers' lack of contact with the outside world, the totality of censorship and the cessation of objective historical research in the Soviet Union, this view tended towards...

Norwich Jj Sitwell R. Mount Athos. 1966.

Liturgy was the great product of Byzantine culture and sustained the church through dark days of oppression when other forms of expression were denied, and it is now enabling new life to spring up. Modern spirituality begins with meditation on the church and its worship. If the liturgy is the action which creates the church, then the monastery is the place where the church is sustained. Monasteries are far more than centres set apart for prayer. They are places where the rich and intricate...

Sharon E J Gerstel And Alicemart Talbot

Orthodox faith permeated the everyday lives of Byzantine men and women, not just when they attended church services, but at home, in the streets and even at work. The liturgical calendar, which designated certain days of the week for fasting and Sundays for worship, provided a temporal framework for the pious. Each day of the year had a special significance, whether it was a dominical feast day of Christ, a celebration of the Virgin Mary, a saint's day, or a commemoration of key events in the...

Robert O Crummey

The age of the Counter-Reformation was a time of bitter conflict in the eastern Orthodox churches in Ukraine and Russia. Rooted in societies with radically different political systems, cultural heritages and confessional traditions, Orthodox leaders and faithful in the two countries responded to the inspiration and pressure of reformed Roman Catholicism in apparently contradictory ways. At the same time, over the course of the seventeenth century, they discovered that their fates were...

Chris Chulos

Peter the Great's desire to transform his empire through a broad array of modernising reforms helped to shape the course of Russian history for the next two centuries. Among the great leader's notable achievements, the construction of a European-style capital facing westwards, the creation of a standing army, the introduction of a regularised system of taxation and the reorganisation of higher education often overshadow the importance of Peter's reform of the Orthodox faith. Tension between...

Illustrations

3.1 St Anastasia the Poison Curer and Anastasia Saramalyna St Eirene. Panagia Phorbiotissa, Asinou, Cyprus. Photograph by Sharon Gerstel. 95 5.1 Epitaphios textile. Victoria and Albert Museum, London. Reproduced by permission of Hirmer Fotoarchiv. 132 5.2 The Communion of the Apostles, Staro Nagoricino. Reproduced by permission of Bildarchiv Foto Marburg. 135 5.3 Gregory of Nazianzos writing his homilies. Mount Sinai, Mss. Gr. 339, fol. 4v. Reproduced through the courtesy of the...

Demetrios Kydones and Thomas Aquinas

Barlaam was condemned for his opposition. He left almost immediately for Avignon, where conversion to Catholicism only confirmed existing suspicions. His treatment in Byzantium was symptomatic of the continuing hostility there was from many quarters to any renewal of contacts with the papacy. He has famously been labelled a 'bad theologian',31 though it was more a case ofbeing wilfully misunderstood. But from a Byzantine point of view his fault was a serious one he was willing to disturb...

Elizabeth A Zachariadqu

Byzantine monasteries were located both in the countryside and in the cities, pre-eminently in Constantinople, and constituted centres of religious, cultural, philanthropic and economic life. They consisted of a complex of buildings, which apart from the monks' cells included the katholikon or main church, chapels, a refectory, a fountain, a bakery, storerooms and stables. Some of them also had hostels for pilgrims and travellers and hospitals and almshouses for the old. Quite often they had...

The union of Florence 1439 and its aftermath

Why did the new emperor not follow his father's wise example and steer clear of too close an involvement with Rome It was very largely because temporising over the union of churches became more difficult once a new pope, Eugenius IV 1431-47 - in the face of the challenge from the council of Basel - offered increasingly advantageous terms. Instead of the prospect of a dictated settlement there were guarantees of unfettered discussion of the points at issue...

The Armenian Principality Of Artaz And The School Of Corcor

As a result, both Armenian regions enjoyed a significant degree of stability and prosperity in the mid-thirteenth century, in marked contrast to the struggles ofthe crusader states to hold their own, while the Latin conquest of Constantinople in 1204 had dealt a nigh mortal blow to Byzantine power. This is the setting against which to view the Armenians' lack of interest in exploring more fully the implications of the union with Rome promulgated by Levon I. In 1243 Catholicos...

Contributors

Michael ANgOLD is Professor Emeritus of Byzantine History, University of Edinburgh. Among his publications is Church and society in Byzantium under the Comneni 1081-1261 1995 . REVd john binns is Vicar of Great St Mary's, Cambridge. Among his publications is An introduction to the Christian Orthodox churches 2002 . canon michael BOuRdEAux is Founder and President of Keston Institute, Oxford. Among his many publications are Opium of the people the Christian religion in the USSR 1965 and...

From the fall of Constantinople 1204 to the council of Lyons 1274 and its aftermath

These were not feelings that were widely shared, for a natural consequence of the crusader conquest of Constantinople in 1204 was a vilification of the Latins. The Byzantines remembered the sack of Constantinople as a deliberate insult towards Orthodoxy. This was the theme of a tract compiled soon after 1204 by Constantine Stilbes, bishop of Kyzikos, listing the errors of the Latins.3 It took this form of polemical literature to its logical conclusion. It provided a rather different image of...

Pseudo Symeon and Nikephoros the Italian

Any discussion of hesychasm must start with the two treatises that set out the specific techniques by which visions might be induced. The first of these treatises, which the manuscripts wrongly attribute to the eleventh-century mystic Symeon the New Theologian, can only tentatively be dated to the late twelfth or early thirteenth century.4 By comparison, the author of the second treatise is a well-known historical figure, Nikephoros the Italian, who lived as a monk on Mount Athos during the...

Radoslav Hlapen

When the Byzantine state was struggling for its very existence, the monasteries of Mount Athos prospered thanks to the modus vivendi established with the Ottomans. If anything, donations of property to the monasteries increased. They were often not so much acts of devotion, as a means of safeguarding property by placing it under the protection of a monastic foundation, which had a special relation with the prospective conqueror. This need was especially great after the battle of Maritsa in...

Paschalis M Kitromilides

The dramatic milestone of 1453 put an end to theological and philosophical contacts between eastern and western Christianity. The intellectual ties and exchanges of the fourteenth and the early fifteenth century had introduced scholastic philosophy to Byzantium and had revived - to a limited degree to be sure - the knowledge of Latin in the east. The Greek-speaking regions of European culture with focal points at Constantinople, Mistras, and Tre-bizond, together with the Venetian-held...

Metropolitan Kiprian And The Orthodox Slavic Revival

They produced historiography in the shape of chronicles the pinnacle of which is the sixteenth-century Illustrated Chronicle Compendium or Litsevoi letopisnyi svod, over io,ooo manuscript pages compiled under the guidance of Metropolitan Makarii and hagiography recording the lives of significant individuals. In the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, this creative activity was accelerated and shaped by a cultural movement that began in the Balkans as an attempt to reform the...

The arc of Orthodoxy

The Constantinopolitan patriarchs had reasons of their own for insisting on respect for the imperial majesty, now that they played a unique part in the inauguration ritual of emperors. They made themselves indispensable in the early thirteenth century once they began anointing the emperor with chrism, thus providing sacramental confirmation of his fitness to rule with God's grace. By the mid-thirteenth century the patriarch was being described as the spiritual image of Christ and source of the...