The Role of Power in Negotiation

20 Negotiation Tactics

This 70 minute video gives you access to a whole new world of negotiation techniques that you probably have never thought of before. You will learn the psychology of how people make choices, and how you can leverage those choices into your advantage in a negotiation setting. All of these tips were chosen because of how widely they can be applied to all kinds of situations. You will also get 50 real-life examples to use in your own negotiations, so that you can learn to never be taken advantage of. All we need is 70 minutes of your time, and we can have you negotiating like a pro, to be able to have people see your way, no matter what you're proposing. All of these tactics can be applied in many different settings, such as asking for a raise, getting a job, or even winning an argument! All these tactics can change how people view you, and give yourself authority! More here...

20 Negotiation Tactics Summary


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The papacy and religious movements before the Reformation

Success of reunion negotiations with the Greek Church (at the papally directed Council of Florence, 1438-45) helped tip the balance of opinion away from the Council of Basle and towards the then Pope Eugenius IV (even though the Byzantine empire would be overwhelmed not long after, in 1453). Although it survived the Schism and the challenge of the 'Conciliar' movement, however, the papacy was only a shadow of its high medieval self just another Italian principality struggling for survival and jostling for quite

History and its Discontents

Loukaris' presence acted as a catalyst for an avalanche of changes that were to shake the Orthodox Church for over a century. The scope and the perspective of his actions go beyond the ideas and practices of a marginalized and subordinate bishop. Sir Steven Runciman states that 'Cyril clearly issued his Confession in the hope of strengthening his flock against Romanising tendencies, of laying the foundation of a reformed and up-to-date Orthodox Church, and of providing a basis for negotiations with other Churches' (Runciman 1968 276). The Confession was part of a general plan for reforming the Church, making priesthood active in the community, educating a generation of young clergymen and finally laying the foundations for a continuous dialogue with other Christians.

The union of Florence 1439 and its aftermath

At Byzantium there were fewer objections to negotiations with Rome, as one by one opponents of union died, to be replaced by a more open-minded generation. Prominent among the newcomers were Bessarion, Isidore and Mark Eugenikos,50 who at a comparatively young age were put at the head of important Constantinopolitan monasteries and then given prestigious sees. They were not Latin sympathisers but neither were they hostile to the west. Their assimilation of scholastic modes of thought meant that they did not dismiss Latin theology out of hand. The driving force behind negotiations was the emperor John VIII Palaiol-ogos, who emerges as a man of some stature.51 Like his predecessors, he saw union as the only means of obtaining substantial help from the west. He had already as a young man made two journeys to the west in search of support. He had been entertained at the court of the emperor Sigismund, who admitted that the Orthodox Church had preserved a purer tradition than the Latin...

Secular Vatican Mussolini to Mafia

A striking feature of these negotiations is that all the parties concerned - the Vatican, Hitler and Mussolini - treated it as strictly business and politics. There was no sentimental nonsense about the Church being 'holy' or of 'His Holiness' being anything but a political operative out to cut a deal in return for money, and his Secretary of State a shrewd chiseller. Only in countries like India do soft-headed people, spineless journalists and pompous priests make much of the Pope's holiness. Europeans have seen his holiness without his robe. In December 1962, the cash-strapped ltalian government passed a law levying a 15 percent tax on share dividends and this rate was soon doubled. The Vatican insisted that as a 'religious' organization, the Holy See should be exempt from all taxes. In particular this meant that its financial institutions - the I.O.R. and the Special Administration - should be free to buy and sell stock in the ltalian stock markets but not be taxed on the profits....

Establishing a National Church

Negotiations between the patriarchate and the first governor of the newly established state, Conte Capodistria had already started. After the assassination of Capodistria (1831) discussions were postponed but always remained as one of the national questions that had to be resolved. In 1844 a military revolt took place against Otto's autocratic regime, which led to the formulation of the first political constitution of the emerging Greek society. The person behind the idea for a new relation between Church and state was one of Koraes' best students, Theokletos Pharmakides (17841860). He thought that the newly established state was a new beginning for the Greek people, who had to cut themselves away from the legacy of Byzantium as represented by the patriarchate he warned of the danger of a theocratic system that would control the body politic of the state he was a staunch opponent of any kind of restriction on the free expression of the individual finally he believed that...

On the Eros of the Ecclesial Body

Allow me to step back at this point, because in order to develop this argument in terms of Christology and ecclesiology, I need first to define the formation of a Christian 'enmattered soul', since discipleship implies a formation, a following, a disciplining such that the knowledge attained is a knowledge of Christ. In other words, if the 'enmattered soul'is determined by the body's negotiations with other bodies, then what is distinctive about this determination when those negotiations concern the body of Christ in the threefold sense in which the medievals understood that 'body' as the historical person ofJesus of Nazareth, as the eucharistic elements and as the Church 20 This is where we must return to those Greek and Latin Fathers who reflected upon the relationship between the physical and the spiritual senses and developed, thereby, a theological phenomenology of embodiment. Let us take a passage from Augustine's Confessions as illustrative

Inter Church Relations and Ecumenism

In the Kingdom of Cilician Armenia (lasting 1197-1375, and now in south-east Turkey) when the survival of the kingdom depended on good relationships with the Greeks and the Latins, the Armenian Church was drawn into uninterrupted series of negotiations between the Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches. Contacts had begun in the time of Catholicos Grigor II Vkayaser 'Martyrophile' (in office 10661105), and Grigor III Pahlavuni (in office 1113-66) attended the Latin Council of Antioch (1141), and later sent a delegation to meet Pope Eugene III (1145-53) in Italy. Soon after, talks with the Byzantine Church resumed under Catholicos Nerses IV Klayetsi (1166-73), and continued with Nerses Lambronatsi, Archbishop of Tarsus (1153-98), and Catholicos Grigor IV called Tghay (1173-93), which all ended without any substantial result, with the death in 1180 of the Emperor Manuel I Komnenos. The negotiations had failed because, for the Armenian ecumenists, union was ideally the fruit of the...

Athanasius And The Martyrs Of Adrianople

After the council of serdica, practically three years passed before Athanasius reentered Alexandria. For it was clear that the exiled bishops whom the western council had restored could not resume secure possession of their sees until the eastern emperor agreed to their return. A certain amount is known about the ecclesiastical negotiations between East and West after the Council of Serdica and about Constantius' dealings with Athanasius after he had accepted the Sercican decisions and agreed to allow him to return.1 But what did Athanasius do between the council and the first letter which he received from Constantius in the summer of 345 As with his journey to the court of Constantius in 338 it seems that Athanasius has been successful in concealing significant activities which he subsequently wished to obliterate from the historical record. The Defense before Constantius conveys the impression, which the Festal Index converts into asserted fact, that after the council Athanasius...

Arabization of the Coptic Church

Contact between Rome and Coptic Christians continued, however, in the Ottoman period (1517-1798) as the Christian population declined to about 200,000 (10-12 per cent of the population). Negotiations took place at several points in the sixteenth century with the approval of more than one patriarch and pope. Finally, in 159 7, delegates from Alexandria signed a declaration of submission to Rome. But this lacked the support of the mass of Coptic Christians and never took effect. Other activities, by various Christian groups, began in Egypt at this period that had more lasting significance. Franciscans and Capuchins engaged in charitable and educational works leading to the conversion to Catholicism by some of the Coptic elite. Protestant influence began with the work of the German Lutheran Peter Heyling in 1632-3. But the Ottoman system of governance strengthened the hand of the Coptic Orthodox patriarch, for the Ottoman millet system allowed religious communities to be under the...

Early Christian and Jesuit Narratives of the Rise of Christianity

Convey a theological point, namely the paradigmatic status of Christ's life as revealed in the Gospels.62 It is also the case that most sacred biographies originated as oral traditions and were committed to paper by monks and clerics who then read them aloud to their largely illiterate audiences on saint's feastdays.63 In this regard, sacred biographies often were the outcome of negotiations between illiterate masses and privileged monks and clerics.

Annotated Bibliography of Books on Theology and Popular Culture

Ward, Graham, Cities of God (London Routledge, 2000). While not primarily an analysis of popular culture, this thick and rich book offers a more comprehensive assessment of culture, organized around the question what kind of theological statement does the city make today As he proceeds, however, Ward scrutinizes many artifacts of popular culture. With St Augustine's City of God whispering in his ear, Ward tunes into the semiology of the city through his reading of films, fiction, architecture, urban planning, employment patterns, sex shops and cyberspace - the places in the postmodern city where desire either pursues its object with abandon or is criticized for doing so. The key pathologies behind the ways we desire in the contemporary world are social atomism - which erodes our capacities for community - and a lust which is endlessly driven to own and accumulate (what Augustine once called concupiscence). In film and fiction, this latter pathology is often symbolized as killer...

The Turnovo Archbishopric and Patriarchate

In 1186, when the Bulgarian state regained its independence, the brothers Assen and Peter rejected the spiritual ascendancy of the Ohrid Archbishopric and the Constantinople Patriarchate and set up a new ecclesiastical centre in the capital of Turnovo, by establishing the autocephalous Archbishopric of Turnovo with Archbishop Basil as its primate. As a result of negotiations between Tsar Kaloyan (r. 1197-1207) and the Roman curia in the autumn of 1204, the right of the Bulgarian ruler to be called 'king' and to mint coins was recognized and Basil was elevated to 'Archbishop of Turnovo and primas of all Bulgaria and Wallachia'. According to the pope the title of primas was equivalent to 'patriarch'. At the beginning of November 1204, at a solemn ceremony, Kaloyan was crowned king and Basil was consecrated as primas. While recognizing the primacy of the pope, the Bulgarian Church preserved its independence. The union with Rome was a great diplomatic success for Tsar Kaloyan, as it...

American Arabists and Changing American Attitudes to Israel

While previous administrations sought to avoid conflict in the Middle East, Nixon and Kissinger saw the imminent threat of confrontation as a series of opportunities for rearranging the pieces of the Arab-Israeli puzzle more to America's liking with American Jews proud and energised as a result of Israel's war victory, Nixon saw Middle East negotiations as a loser in domestic political terms In other words and put crudely, the relationship between the American president and the American Jewish community now loomed larger than the relationship between Arabists and their personal connections in the Levant.209 Another American missionary taken hostage in 1984, Ben Weir and his wife Carol were highly critical of American policy in the Middle East. Weir was a lecturer at the Near East School of Theology in Beirut, an ecumenical Seminary committed to training Protestants for ministry in the Arab world. Without the kind of government backing available to AUB, NESTB was even more dependent on...

The Conversion to Christianity

In practice the ties with the western Church meant that the Byzantine clergy would be expelled and replaced by papal missionaries. Bishop Formosus found such great favour with Boris that he petitioned the Pope to appoint him Archbishop of Bulgaria. However, the new Pope Hadrian II refused, under the pretext that the bishop was not allowed to leave his own see in Italy. Soon after that Formosus was recalled and replaced by Bishops Dominic of Treviso and Grimoald of Polimarti. Boris then asked for deacon Marinus or for a cardinal whose 'life and wisdom' made him worthy to be appointed Archbishop of Bulgaria, but got another refusal. Instead, the Holy See sent deacon Sylvester and several other clerics to Bulgaria, but Boris refused to receive them and asked once again for Formosus. The Pope responded in no uncertain terms that it was for him and for him alone to choose and appoint the future spiritual leader of the Bulgarian Church. So after three years of fruitless negotiations with...

Theology and Doctrine Scripture and Tradition

The Church of the East participates in the WCC, despite opposition from some of the other Oriental Orthodox churches. This opposition, mainly from Coptic circles, has been particularly painful in the context of the Middle Eastern Council of Churches, which after long negotiations and debates in 1998 yielded to Oriental Orthodox opposition and declined membership to the Assyrian Church of the East. The Syrian Orthodox, the Syrian Catholic and the Chaldean Churches are full members of the MECC.

The Usurpation Of Magnentius

Initially at least, Magnentius hoped to gain recognition from Constantius as ruler of the West, and he attempted negotiations with Vetranio and Constantius to that effect.9 It was perhaps the rebellion and suppression of Nepotianus which convinced him that war was unavoidable. In July or August 350 (so it seems) Magnentius ceased issuing coinage in the name of Constantius as his

Election of Exarch and Abolition of the Schism

Another extremely important problem was the need to have the schism abolished, since it was a burden that the Bulgarian Orthodox Church had had to live with for 73 years. That was achieved with the unstinting support of the Russian Orthodox Church, which promised to intercede with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. To this end, the Deputation of the Exarchate was moved from Constantinople to Sofia and the Holy Synod decided to send to Constantinople the metropolitans Boris of Nevrokop and Sophronius of Turnovo who, along with the Bishop of Veles, Andrew, were authorized to act in every way to conduct the necessary negotiations and to sign the requisite documents.

The Story of Israelites and the Cow The Pious Man and His

Moses (pbuh) stayed among his people calling them to Allah. It seems their souls were uneasy in a way that the observant eye could not mistake. Their obstinacy and chattering about what has become known as The Story of the Cow was unwarranted. This topic did not need so many negotiations between Moses and the people, nor did it need all their bias.

Cultural Politics and Theology

In the ensuing discussion, in which Western Christians raised the limits of diversity and the boundaries of Christian identity, Asian feminist theologians (Kwok 1991 Chung 1996) have made several points. First, they have insisted that Christianity has never been pure and has continuously from its beginning adopted elements from different cultures. It is only when non-Western churches are doing so that more established churches and theologians label such practices as syncretism in a derogatory sense to exercise control and power. In fact, the relation between Gospel and culture has never been simply wholesale borrowing or outright rejection, but full of negotiation and contestation, as well as accommodation. If Asian theology is not to be simply the mimicry of Western theology, Asian theologians must be bold enough to experiment with many different forms of cultural dialogues and negotiations (Kwok 2000 33-36). Second, Asian religious traditions are not driven by belief systems, nor...

The Vicissitudes of the Twentieth Century

The failure in Asia Minor made the dysfunctionality of the Greek state not simply obvious but also dangerous. Since civil society failed to evolve, the population turned to the atemporal permanence of the liturgy in order to impose cohesion and symmetry onto the chaotic political life of their society. In 1923 new negotiations between state and Church secured a commonly accepted plan of operation, which supposedly ended the domination of the state over the independence of the synodical structure. The state became the guarantor of the Church as long as the Church supported its policies in exchange the Church would support the political establishment as long as it did not try to change the status quo between them. Since then, officially the Church actively supports all governments in power, if they do not fail to protect its interests from corrosion by giving away rights to religious minorities and other sectarian groups, or by permitting attempts to tax its immense property and assets.

By The Archbishop of Canterbury

Century, there was always an uncomfortable sense of unfinished business about how to relate with those on the other side of doctrinal and political divisions. Modern ecumenism has roots in a large number of missions and negotiations in the past, and these essays will show something of the variety in that history In modern times, eastern Christianity has suffered once again from being the victim of an imposed minority status in many countries the trauma of communist domination and persecution has indelibly marked the churches of eastern Europe. But at the same time, many of the most creative theological elements in contemporary western theology can trace their origins to eastern sources, thanks partly, though not exclusively, to the Russian diaspora. For both Roman Catholic and Reformed thinkers, the eastern world has opened new pathways which relativise, even if they do not always solve, the historic standoffs between diverse western concerns, and offer a different and often more...

History for the Hellenes and History for the Hebrews

Little more than a window to truths on the other side of history, to universal truths unaffected by time and place and circumstance whereas for the Hebrews, Momigliano says, history and religion were one (Momigliano 1990 20). The divine lived in, not beyond, history. History told of a people's spiritual and physical negotiations with the divine and of how people's spiritual and physical existence depended on these negotiations.

The advent of Heraclius and monenergism 61638

Military success encouraged Heraclius to envisage negotiations not only with the miaphysites but also with the Church of the East, which was the best established and most influential Christian community of Persia. At the time, this church was enjoying a phase of rapid expansion and was incorporating large numbers of converts from Zoroastrianism and from various polytheistic religions of Arabia, Asia, and China. On the eve of the Muslim conquest the missions of the Church of the East were by far the widest spread amongst all Christian churches. In 630 Heraclius met Catholicos Iso'yahb II at Berrhoea (Aleppo). The catholicos celebrated a liturgy in the presence of the emperor and a group of Byzantine bishops, and the sovereign himself received communion from his hands. The division, however, between the Byzantine Church and the Church of the East was to prove too great, and the precipitate reunion was immediately contested amongst the East Syrians and soon broke down. Heraclius next...

Open Doors and Dramatic Growth

In 1946, God started positioning the Radio Church of God, and the Work being done through Mr. Armstrong, for dramatic growth. Faced with the pressures of daily radio broadcasting (for which Hollywood was well-equipped to provide technical support), and recognizing the need for a college to train an educated and faithful ministry, Mr. Armstrong looked into moving to Southern California. He located an appropriate property in Pasadena, and entered into negotiations to purchase it.

The Peasants War as the revolution of the common man

The Peasants' War commenced after the unrest stretching from Basle to Lake Constance in the summer of 1524 and the revolts in Upper Swabia in January 1525. Tens of thousands of peasants formed three large bands. When the lords induced the writing of letters of complaint so as to begin negotiations, the peasants, who had had enough of the meddlesome courts, demanded to be judged according to 'the divine right which dictates the appropriate course of action to each estate.'22 In effect, this meant employing the gospel to judge the secular order and thereby making judges of the theologians. The most famous peasant letter of complaint and very symptomatic of the times was the 'Twelve Articles of the Upper Swabian peasants' (die Zw lf Artikel der oberschw bischen Bauern),23 passed by a kind ofpeasants' parliament in Memmingen in March 1525. It demanded a reduction in taxes, the priest's appointment by the community, freedom (abolishment of villeinage), liberalization of hunting and fishing...

Modern Period Bonaparte to the Present

The modernization begun by Muhammad Ali was matched by the work of Patriarch Cyril IV (1854-61), who made many efforts towards reform. He encouraged education (especially for clergy), church publications and construction. Cyril helped to promote union with the Eastern Orthodox, but these negotiations were cut short by his death, under rather mysterious circumstances, at age 45. Catholic and Protestant missionary activity also steadily increased opportunities for education among Copts, so it is not surprising that tensions developed between educated laity and tradition-minded clergy. In 1874, the Majlis Milli (community council) was formed at the instigation of powerful Coptic laymen and initially accepted by Cyril V (1874-192 7) to administer church It seems that both communities in Egypt - Muslim and Christian - have turned to religion since the 1950s to gain strength and purpose during the constant economic crisis brought on by a rapidly increasing population. A shared phenomenon -...

Selfdefinition visavis the Graeco Roman world

To engage the question of Christian self-definition is to become keenly aware that it is a process of differentiations and negotiations that is never final, and that the categories of description - 'Christian', 'Jewish', 'Greek', 'Roman' - are not to be taken for granted. The communities these categories are said to designate are neither stable nor essentially known entities, but social formations continuously engaged in self-recreation.1 With this in mind, I have endeavored to analyse a crucial moment in the second century of the formation of a 'Christian' discourse and, indeed, of the construction of 'Christianity' itself. Justin Martyr was not the first to take up the question of self-definition vis-a-vis the Graeco-Roman world, and he would certainly not be the last, but he was surely one of the most influential to do so. It was Justin more than anyone else who would set the terms in which Christianity would be represented to the wider world of antiquity, and a whole host of...

The twentieth century

At the beginning of the twentieth century a new wave of independence arose in the Ethiopian Church. Ever since Frumentius had been ordained the first Bishop of Ethiopia by Athanasius in the fourth century, the head of the Church had been an Egyptian appointed by the See of Alexandria. The anomaly of this situation, supported by a spurious addition to the Canon of Nicaea, was acutely felt by Ethiopians. It was also felt that reform and modernization of the Church could not be led by a foreign prelate who was more than likely ignorant of Ethiopia's history, traditions and language. With the death in 1926 of Abuna Mattewos, the last of the four bishops who had been appointed back in 1881, Ethiopia approached the See of Alexandria with the request that the new metropolitan should have the authority to consecrate native Ethiopian bishops. After a lengthy exchange, finally in 1929 Abuna Qerallos was appointed as metropolitan, with the authority to consecrate five Ethiopian monks as diocesan...

Beginning from the Baptism of John

I use the term 'mission' because it is the most accurate but also the most flexible term. 'Ministry', when used of someone's activity, has an almost unavoidable ecclesiastical overtone, despite its use also for high political office in the UK and elsewhere. 'Mission' was never quite so restricted in connotation. Not only does it refer to a religious enterprise ('missionary work'), but the term is also used of a body of people sent abroad to conduct negotiations, and recently it has become fashionable for businesses and higher education institutions to set out their goals in 'mission statements'. Its overtone of carefully conceived purpose, of responsibility to a sending authority, even of 'vocation', raises just the questions we will need to clarify as we proceed.

Luthers legacy contested

Philip Melanchthon certainly believed that he understood Luther's true intentions better than anyone else. Melanchthon had deputized for Luther at the Augsburg negotiations in 1530. Here the text which Lutherans would accept as the very foundation of their faith for centuries to come was formulated the Augsburg Confession. Melanchthon had also been close to Luther since 1518. Because of his excellent knowledge of Greek he had played a major part in translating the Bible. Furthermore, Melanchthon had written the first survey of Luther's life after Luther passed away. But these accomplishments

The Madonna

Pocitelj Mosque War

At the London Conference of 1992, the Western powers condemned ethnoreligious terror, pledged to support Bosnia's territorial integrity, and rejected the use of force to change boundaries. The conference appointed two negotiators to work for peace in Bosnia Cyrus Vance was to represent the United Nations and David Lord Owen the European Community. The Vance-Owen plan divided Bosnia-Herzegovina into ten cantons with a dominant ethnic group in nine of the cantons. The area designated for Croat control was very generous. The Herceg-Bosna regime used the Vance-Owen map to justify an attack on Muslim communities where the map said Croat control, they seized control by disarming Bosnian Muslims and destroying their communities. 14 While Croats and Bosnians had agreed to the Vance-Owen plan, the Republika Srpska leaders stalled as their army seized more territory. Then in May 1993, they rejected the plan. Owen and Thorwald Stoltenberg, Vance's successor as UN negotiator, then came up with a...

What I7 Discipline

The conflicts, the negotiations, and the accommodations regarding places ofworship, however, only generated part of the conflict between confessions about the symbolic use of space. It is therefore necessary to remember the importance of tensions that surrounded the question of burial and funeral marches or processions. These tensions arose because rival confessions tried to keep for themselves these particular forms ofpublic expressions offaith that translated into the appropriation of territory, the rogation of sacralizing space, the visible delimitation of the community of believers.35 In many Protestant-controlled areas the processions, and particularly that of Corpus Christi, which associated religious definition of the community with the eucharistic miracle, were forbidden 36 in Augsburg, for example, from 1555 to 1606, or again in La Rochelle afterthe Edict of Nantes. In 1599, the magistrate of La Rochelle agreed to concede the question of the mass and to authorize it anew, but...


For all religions it is essential that they bring to a world full of sufferings and pains, catastrophes and guilt a message of liberation and reconciliation, and that they show ways how people can find their way out and even go with them the way. Often the plurality of such messages leads - as in the dispute of the disciples about the first places in the kingdom which Jesus announced (see Mk 9 33-37par) - to the dispute about the validity of the messages. Here, however, I would like to call attention to the fact that the various ways of passing-over to other points of view, the use of different languages etc. include an even more important possibility the existential change into another religion, what we call conversion. We may even say that the existential side of religion should obtain greater preference compared with the objective findings in the history of religion and religions. Although these findings have their impact on the official and public negotiations between the...

T E Lawrence

He favoured the Balfour Declaration and the Zionist enterprise as a means to keep the French out of Palestine and perhaps out of the rest of Syria. He championed ill-fated negotiations between the Sherif of Mecca's son, the Emir Feisal, and Chaim Weizmann (whom Lawrence genuinely admired). Lawrence's prejudices were imperially motivated. He loathed Turks and Frenchmen, and he respected Jews, 'the sooner the Jews farm it Palestine the better,' wrote Lawrence in a letter home. In Severn Pillars of Wisdom, he notes that 'only in the everlasting miracle of Jewry, had distant Semites kept some of their identity and force' in the greater world.161 What the Balfour Declaration left unclear was the meaning of a 'national home'. Was this synonymous with sovereignty or statehood and if so what were to be the borders In all of Palestine or just a portion What was to be the status of Jerusalem Furthermore, while it stated that 'the civil and religious rights of...


Hegemony, in short, provides us a way for thinking about the reciprocity between the production of popular culture and its consumption. As described by John Storey, Because hegemony is always the result of 'negotiations' between dominant and subordinate groups, it is a process marked by both 'resistance' and 'incorporation' it is never simply power imposed from above. 7 Popular culture is a vital hegemonic zone of this Writer Thomas Frank has argued that the aesthetic of cool was discovered long ago by advertisers as a strategy to keep the wheels of recuperation running smoothly. The cultural rebel who is out there subverting the system is a beloved clich , and a highly effective figure when used by those who are trying to sell us cars, cigarettes, computers, pants, and soft drinks.10 It is well-known in the ad industry, Frank makes clear from trade seminars and publications he cites, that the successful brands are those that identify themselves with liberation, and the handiest way...

Matthew Steenberg

In practice, the strengths of this paradigm have been accompanied by weaknesses. Mention of Nestorius, who was condemned at the ecumenical council of Ephesus in ad 431, raises both the issue of geographical de-localisation and the problem of universal conciliar agreement. Geography, as much as political agendas, might influence the practical constitution of councils (an issue of utmost relevance at Ephesus, and also at Chalcedon) and agreement secured at a council does not per se equate to acceptance at the level of the whole oikoumene. Ephesus initially engendered a division between the Eastern and Western portions of the Christian empire in the years immediately following 431, healed (in part) only thanks to careful negotiations between St Cyril of Alexandria and John, Bishop of Antioch. More tragically, the council of Chalcedon in ad 451 engendered a division in the Christian realm that has never fully healed, and remains to this day. That differing ecclesial traditions today...

The Court of Ambrose

Immediately after Gratian's death, Ambrose went to the court of Magnus Maximus at Trier and began negotiations on behalf of Valentinian II. For sinister reasons, Maximus asked Ambrose to persuade Valentinian II to come to Trier. He promised to accept him as his own son, but Ambrose saw through the deceit. In response, he made excuses to delay such a meeting. He argued that it was too long a journey, the winter was too harsh, and that Valentinian II was too young to travel without his mother. Maximus grew impatient with the delaying tactics and dispatched Ambrose to Milan insisting that he try to work out the details of a conference. But while Ambrose had been purposefully impeding the negotiations with Maximus, Valentinian II had established his court in Milan and rallied his supporters, including Theodosius. Though he did not rush to avenge Gratian's murder, Theodosius reckoned rightly that he could only profit by supporting Valentinian II, a weak and younger coruler. Before he could...


For their part, Ipatii Potii, Kyryl Terletsky and other members of the Orthodox hierarchy looked to a reunion of Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches as the best way to defend their tradition. The ideal of reunifying the Body of Christ had wide appeal in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, especially after the ill-fated union of Florence of L439, under which the eastern Orthodox churches would have retained their own liturgy in return for recognition of papal primacy. In Poland-Lithuania in the late sixteenth century, the lay leaders of Orthodoxy shared with the bishops the vision of a unified Christendom. The devil, however, lay in the details. For the laity, only union of all branches of Orthodoxy with Rome was acceptable. Potii and his colleagues, however, were open to a more limited union under which the Orthodox in the commonwealth would unilaterally recognise the primacy of Rome. In addition to the ideal of a reunited Christendom, the bishops had a more practical reason for...

The later Crusades

Of the rest of the Crusades we need say very little. The distressful Children's Crusade of 1212 was the fruit of emotional appeals, chiefly notable as a vivid example of one phase of the religious temper of Western Europe of the day. Many of the youths who responded to it ended in slavery in Egypt, The sceptical Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, whose stormy relations with the Papacy are one of the complicated sets of episodes of the Middle Ages, through negotiations and a treaty with Egypt obtained possession (1229) of Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Nazareth, and the roadstead of Jaffa and was crowned King of Jerusalem. In 1244 Jerusalem once more fell to the Moslems and was not again to be in Christian hands until the twentieth century.

Negotiating Essentials

Negotiating Essentials

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