Index

Affectivism, 76-7, 79

Anselm, 127, 132, 142, 196, 198, 209, 241 Apophaticism, 23, 48-56, 63; Bonaventure on, 52-3, 62; exaggerated forms of, xiv, 12, 234-6; and faith, 75, 76; and self-transcendence, 118-19. See also Thomas Aquinas: God: unknowability of

Atheism, xii; Feuerbach's, 227-31; militant, 228-31; and negative theology, 230-1; Nietzsche's, 150-4; parasitical, 227-31, 246-7, 257; Thomas Aquinas and, 258-9 Augustine, xii, 33, 198, 213; and

Bonaventure, xii; and drama, 112; influence on Thomas Aquinas, xiv; as Platonist, xiv Augustinianism, xi, xii, 117, 196, 197;

intellectualism, 77, 84; radical, 90 Austin, J. L., 68-71; on 'performative'

utterances, 68-71, 72 Averroists, 90

Barth, Karl, xii, 16, 28, 44, 230; creation, 9, 10, 12; election, 9, 10; faith, 9, 10; on Feuerbach, 229; reason, 10 Barthians, x, xi, xii, xviii, 8-14, 15, 16, 20 Basil the Great, 29 Bernard of Clairvaux, xiii, 54 Blond, Philip, 26, 27 Body: as language, 73, 92-4; and reason, 83, 89-92; resurrection of Jesus, 68-71, 72 Bonaventure: apophaticism, 51, 52, 58, 261; being, 26, 27; cataphaticism, 52-3; Christocentrism, 52-62, 224; coincidence of opposites, 57-60; creation, 52, 56; divine esse, 56-8; hierarchy, 52, 53, 56, 60-1; hypostatic union, 58-60; as mystical theologian, xiv, xviii, 51, 198, 220; oneness of God, 57; passion of Christ, 52, 60-1; Trinity, 58-60 Burrell, David, 41-2, 213

Caputo, John, 150, 162 Chalcedon, Council of, 59, 217-19, 220 Christ: Barth on, 9, 13; light of, 48, 50; passion of, 52, 53, 60-1; resurrection of, 21, 68-71, 72 Christology, 25, 51; Bonaventure, 51; Thomas Aquinas, 215-21, 224. See also McCabe, Herbert, OP Cloud of Unknowing, 55-6 Copleston, F., 248

Creation, xiv, 3; causality, 225, 248-51; contingency, 242-5; ex nihilo, 9, 12; freedom, 32-3; proof of God, 241-2; Peter Lombard, 30-2; Pseudo-Denys, 161; sacramental character of, 224-5; Trinity, 11. See also Thomas Aquinas: Creation

Cross, Richard, 128, 133, 137, 138-9, 144, 145, 146, 170

Dante Alighieri, xviii, 98, 104, 108-16 Davies, Oliver, xix, 100, 105, 108 Dawkins, Richard, xii, 230, 233, 246 De Lubac, Henri, 14 Denys the Carthusian, 54, 77, 81-2 Denys, Pseudo-, See Pseudo-Denys Derrida, Jacques, 103, 150, 154, 159-60,

161-2, 164-8, 227, 236, 255-6 Descartes, Rene, 128, 198 Difference, 161-2, 163-4; and God,

149-50, 163, 212-16, 219-20, 250-1; hierarchy, 160-2; Meister Eckhart,

162-6; Pseudo-Denys, 149, 157-8 Dubarle, Andre-Marie, 44

Duns Scotus, John: analogy, 136-9; being not a genus, 141-8; criticism of Henry of Ghent, 136-9; criticism of Thomas Aquinas, 138-9; difference between God and creatures, 141-8; idolatry, 132-6; infinite and finite being, 144-7; intellect, 85-8; onto-theology, 26, 29, 178, 194; univocity, 86; univocity of being, 128-32, 139-41, 176, 182; univocity and natural theology, 125-8, 136, 141-3, 149, 170, 193, 199-202, 208, 209, 256

Eckhart, Meister: Derrida on, 103;

difference, 162-4, 166; difference and God, 163, 194, 214, 219; as mystical theologian, xiv, 55; negative theology, 101-2; onto-theology, 26, 27; rhetoric, 99-107 Enlightenment, the, xiv, 94 Equivalence, extensional and intensional,

18-20, 197 Eucharist: efficacy, 68-74; eschatology, 67; and music, 115-6; presence/absence of Christ in, 62-74, 115; sign, 63; Thomas Aquinas on, 62-74; Zwingli on, 63-7

Existence (esse): Bonaventure, 26, 27;

contingency, 244-5; logic of, 149-68, 169-71. See also Thomas Aquinas: existence (esse); Duns Scotus, John Experientialism, 120, 196, 197-9

Faith, 3, 17; choice and, xv; falsification and, 20-2, 23; formal object of, 17-20; foundationalism, 36-8; God of, xiv, 15, 18; precludes proof of God, x, xi, 6-8, 48; requires proof of God, xi, 3-4, 5-6 (see also Vatican I); rationalism, xiv; the shape of, 23-4 See also Reason, shape of Feuerbach, Ludwig, 39, 40, 229 Five ways, See Thomas Aquinas, five ways Foundationalism, 36-8, 149, 157-8

Gallus, Thomas (Vercellensis), 77, 78 Geach, Peter T., 171, 172, 173, 174, 211-12 Gerson, Jean, 50, 77, 79 Giles of Rome, 18, 77 Gilson, Etienne, 43-4 God: creator, 4, 9, 120, 158, 169; and difference, 26, 149-68, 169-71; of faith, x, xii, 4, 18, 19, 23, 39; and grammar, 150-4; natural desire for, 15; oneness of, 162, 164; ratio Dei, 38-40; of reason, ix, x, 5-6, 13, 16,

18, 48; Trinity, 9, 56, 164; unknowable, xii, 24; vision of, 15. See also Bonaventure: creation, oneness of God, Trinity; Eckhart, Meister; Thomas Aquinas: God Graham, Gordon, 109 Grayling, Anthony C., xii, 230 Gregory the Great, 78 Gunton, Colin, 11, 30, 38, 40, 44, 47, 51, 193

Haldane, John, 19, 242 Heidegger, Martin, 26-8 Hemming, Lawrence, 26 Henry of Ghent: on intellect, 84-6, 94; on univocity and analogy, 130-1, 137-8, 180

Hick, John, 218, 220

Hierarchy, 36, 52, 53, 56, 60-1; and difference, 160-2 Hilton, Christopher, xviii, 55, 60 Hugh of Balma, 77, 78 Hugh of St Victor, 224 Hume, David, 238 Hypostatic union, see Bonaventure:

hypostatic union; Thomas Aquinas: hypostatic union

Idolatry, 12. See also Duns Scotus, John;

Thomas Aquinas Intellect, 75-88; Augustine, 80-3, 84; Denys the Carthusian, 81-2; distinguished from reason, xv; Duns Scotus, 85-8; Henry of Ghent, 84-6; medieval and modern meanings, xiv-xvi; and unanswerable questions, xv. See also Thomas Aquinas

Julian of Norwich, 54-6

Kant, Immanuel, ix, 6-7, 8, 20, 21; agnosticism, 11; on causality, 7, 8, 249; on experience, 6, 7; on freedom, 6, 7, 8; on God, 7, 238-9; on morality, 7 Kantianism, 78, 96

196-7, 209, 213, 234 Kilby, Karen, xviii

Language, 92-4; Nietzsche on God and language, 150-4; as performative, 92-3. See also Music Lash, Nicholas, xii, 80 Leibniz, Gottfried, 237-8

Lombard, Peter, see Peter Lombard Loughton, Kevin, xviii, 215-16, 221-3

McCabe, Herbert, OP, 41, 172, 173, 178; Christology, 217-19, 220; poetry and music, 109-10 MacDermott, Timothy, 32, 34 Mackie, J. L., 174, 237-8, 243, 252 McGinn, Bernard, xiii Magisterium, 46 Maimonides, Moses, 186 Marion, Jean-Luc, 150, 162 Marx, Karl, 229, 230 Metaphor, 55, 202

Metaphysics: and onto-theology, 27-8;

poetic metaphysics, 108 Milbank, John, 76, 94-7, 119, 193-202, 239

Montemaggi, Vittorio, xviii, 104, 108, 113 Music, 98, 104, 108-16; and the body, 109-10; and emotion, 111-14, 118; as 'eucharistic', 115-16, 121; as formal, 109, 110-11; as limit of reason, 98, 104, 108-16; and meaning, 111-12; as natural theology, 114-15; as performance, 91-2, 108-9 Mystery, xiv, 4

Mysticism, xii, xiii, 49-52, 53, 54, 61; and the apophatic, xiii, 77; and experience, xiii, xiv; and scholastic theology, xiii

Necessity, de re and de dicto, 22; See

Thomas Aquinas: necessity Negation, logic of, 150, 158-60 Negative theology, see Theology: negative Neoplatonism, see Platonism Newman, John Henry, 104 Nicholas of Cusa, 166, 214, 227 Nietzsche, Friedrich, xviii, 3; and God, 150-4, 162, 228, 236; and grammar, 150-4; and music, 110, 112, 113 Nouvelle theologie, 14-17

Onto-theology, 26-8, 36; and Derrida, 149, 155-6; and Duns Scotus, 199-202; and Heidegger, 26-8; and natural theology, 28-9; and Thomas Aquinas, 26

Pauly, Hannah, xviii, 152 Performatives, 68-74, 98-9; performative contradictions, 68-71, 72

Peter Lombard, 30-2, 240

Pickstock, Catherine, xvii, 76, 94-7, 119,

126, 203 Plantinga, Alvin, 8, 10, 14 Plato, 15, 22, 180

Plotinus, 15, 50

Poetry, xviii, 106, 108, 118

Post-modernism, 105

Proclus, 15, 50

Proof, 36-8; conditions of proof, 226-7 Pseudo-Denys, 42, 45, 53, 78, 101; apophatic and cataphatic theology, 155-8, 187-8; epistemological realism, 149, 155-6; hierarchy, 154-62; ontological difference, 149, 157-8, 193, 211-15, 219, 227

Quine, Willard Van Orman, 211-15

125-6, 144, 146 Reason: 'alone', 96; and animality, 89-92, 97-8, 107, 232-3; Augustine, 84; and body, 83; as discursive, 80, 89, 93, 97-8, 120, 209-10; Enlightenment, xiv, 94, 97; and eucharist, 121, 256-7; formal object of, 17-20; and intellect, 89-90, 232-3; as kenotic, 232-3; and knowledge of God, 107; and language, 73, 92-4, 98-9; and rhetoric, 89-107; shape of, 23-4, 25, 51, 75, 76, 119-20, 121, 125, 223-4, 256-7, 261; theological rationalism, x, xi; ultimate questions of, 232-6 Resurrection, See Christ: resurrection of Rhetoric, 89-107. See also Eckhart,

Meister: rhetoric; Thomas Aquinas: reason: and rhetoric Rubenstein, Mary-Jane, xviii, 28, 44, 151 Russell, Bertrand, 246, 248-51

Sacrament, and creation, 24-5, 100, 106,

224-5 Sells, Michael, 101 Smart, J. J. C., 234 Stephens, Rebecca, xviii, 100 Stone-Davis, Ferdia, xviii, 108, 109, 110, 114

Swinburne, Richard, 252

Theism, xii; parasitical, 231, 257 Theology: academic, xv; formal object of, 39; mystical, xiii; natural, 8, 9, 11, 13,

119-20; negative, xiii, 101-2, 119-20; revealed, 44, 45, 49, 51 Thomas Aquinas, St: Analogy, 30, 38, 135-9, 202-7; attribution, 205-7; proportional, 202-5 Apophaticism, see Thomas Aquinas:

God: unknowability of Christology, 216-21, 224; incarnational logic, 223-4 Creation, xv, 29-38; and autonomy, 35-6; and causality, 33-5, 251-4; and contingency, 242-4, 245; ex nihilo, 34, 250-1; and freedom, 32-3; and incarnation, 217-9; and necessity, 35-6; and proof of God, 241-2; and Trinity, 11 Eucharist, 52, 62-74; efficacy, 68-74; and eschatology, 67; real presence of Christ in, 64-5 Existence (esse): as actuality, 149-68,

169-71, 174-5, 184; as existential quantifier, 149-68, 169-71; and indeterminacy, 187-9; logic of, 149-68, 169-71; and onto-theology, 187-90; not predicated equivocally, 177; not predicated univocally, 139-41, 175-7; predicated analogically, 179-83; as predicated of God, 172-4

Experience (of perfection), 95, 197-9 Five ways, xv, 16, 19-20, 24, 40, 43, 45, 48, 95, 96, 120-1, 196-202, 240-1, 256-7

Giles of Rome and, 18-20 God: and creation, xv, 29-38; conditions of proof of, 226-7; and difference, 211-16; of Exodus, 43-5, 242, 261; experience of, 197-9; grammar of, 43, 45; ipsum esse subsistens, 184-6, 187-9, 242, 260; oneness of, 42, 45, 238-9; otherness of, 42-3; of the philosophers, 43-5, 122, 158, 169,

170-4; proof and analogy, 206-7,

209-10; proof and unknowability,

210-11; proof and validity, 211-12; not a proper name, 172-3; ratio Dei,

38-40, 220, 260; rationally demonstrable, xi, xvi, 158, 169, 170-4, 193-202, 207-8, 215; Trinity, 30, 45; unknowability of, 40-3, 45, 79-80, 118-19, 169-70, 185-6, 235-6, 252-3, 254-6 Good, predicated analogically, 181-2 Hypostatic union, 216-21, 224 Idolatry, 132-6, 207-8 Intellect, xv, 75-88, 232-3 Metaphor, 181 Mystical theologian, xiii Necessity, de dicto and de re, 22 Platonism of, xiii

Reason: and animality, 89-92, 117-18, 232-3; as apophatic, 118-19; and cause, 119-20; and faith, 14, 15, 18-20, 240-1, 256-7; 'kenotic', 232-3; and language, 92-4; and proof, 118-20; as ratiocination, 80, 89, 91-2, 108-9, 117-18; and rhetoric, 99-107; sacramental shape of, 23-4, 25, 51, 75, 76, 119-20, 121, 125, 223-4, 256-7, 261; and senses, 91-2, 108 Summa Theologiae (structure of), xv, 38,

40-7, 239-41 Unanswerable questions, xv, xvi, 24, 88, 121, 232-6; causal, 248-54; existential, 244-5, 257-8; are legitimate, 251-3; logical oddity of, 250-1 Univocity, 180-1 Ticciati, Susannah, xviii, 9, 10-12

Vatican Council I, ix, x, xi, xiii, xvi, 3-4, 5, 7, 8, 11, 12-14, 17, 20, 22, 23, 28, 37, 40, 44, 47, 94, 120, 195, 224, 261

William of St Thierry, 81 Williams, Anna, xv, xviii, 239 Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 69, 119, 174, 233, 251

Zwingli, Ulrich: absence of Christ, 66-7, 72-3; on the eucharist, 63-7; on signs, 64, 70

REVELATION

The proposition that the existence of God is demonstrable by rational argument is doubted by nearly all philosophical opinion today and is thought by most Christian theologians to be incompatible with Christian faith. This book argues that, on the contrary, there are reasons of faith why in principle the existence of God should be thought rationally demonstrable and that it is worthwhile revisiting the theology of Thomas Aquinas to see why this is so. The book further suggests that philosophical objections to proofs of God's existence rely upon an attenuated and impoverished conception of reason which theologians of all monotheistic traditions might wish to reject. Denys Turner proposes that on broader and deeper conception of it, human rationality is open to the 'sacramental shape' of creation as such and in its exercise of rational proof of God it in some way participates in that sacramentality of all things.

DENYS TURNER is Norris-Hulse Professor of Divinity and Fellow of Peterhouse, University of Cambridge. He is the author of Marxism and Christianity (1983), Eros and Allegory (1995), The Darkness of God (Cambridge University Press, 1995) and Faith Seeking (2002).

Cover illustration: St Thomas Aquinas from 'Libro de Horas de Alfonso el Magnifico'. c. 1442 (vellum). Spanish School (fifteenth century). British Library Ms Add 28962 f.36. Reproduced by kind permission of The Brldgeman Art Library (XZL 150423).

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