Eight Joy Love and Liberality

Norman Kretzmann

Abstract: There can be no passions of any sort in God because, for instance, passions are associated with the sensory part of the human soul. If the having of intellective attitudes, however, is simply a corollary of the having of intellect and will, then Aquinas's relational method mandates attributing joy and pleasure to God. Patterned on the attribution of pleasure and joy, active divine love is a corollary of intellective appetite in God. Aquinas approaches the associative aspect of God's love when he takes as primary what appears to be God's volition of union with other things, and then uses that as the basis for one of his arguments for the thesis that God loves himself and other things. Aquinas argues that some virtues, such as truthfulness, justice, and liberality, which are sources of activities devoid of passion, are divine attributes. Liberality is the virtue most pertinent to the subject matter of this chapter because liberality is the one that is indispensable to love.

Keywords: Aquinas, divine attributes, God, intellect, intellective attitudes, joy, liberality, love, passions, sensory soul, virtues

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