Readers Note

Generally the listing of medieval names in library catalogues or book indexes begins with the first name, so if you were looking for Peter Damian or Peter Lombard, you would look under Peter. In the present volume, you would be correct in your search: They are listed under Peter. However, there are many Peters and many Johns and many Williams. Some of them are more widely known by their last name, and many readers might not even know the first name. This dictionary begins with "Abelard, Peter" since most people have heard of Abelard. In fact, they are so familiar with that name, that they might believe that Abelard is his sole name.

An even more complex situation often arises in the case of the names of Jewish and Muslim authors: They have their native name and also a Latin name. To many non-Jewish or non-Muslim people, the only name that they might know is in its Latin (and English) form. Averroes is the Latin (and English) name for the Arab philosopher Ibn Rushd, which could be listed under "Rushd, ibn."

In the present volume, we have tried to follow the general rule of listing authors under their first names. However, when someone's second name is more often used in public than his or her first name, or when the dominant use in the English-speaking world is the Latin and English form of a Jewish or Arabic author's name, we have gone with the more usual name form. We have also tried, however, to give the alternative name in its proper order, indicating likewise where the entry is located. Peter Abelard thus is listed under Peter, but with an indication telling the reader to search under Abelard. Likewise, Rushd, ibn will be listed, and at that spot the reader will be told to "see Averroes."

In regard to the bibliography, we have tried to provide in the same order as in the dictionary the English translations of the primary writings of the authors and the secondary writings treating their lives and teachings. Usually, the secondary writings will indicate the author who is treated in the title of the book and article. Whether they do or do not, we have indicated the medieval author who is treated in that book or article in parentheses at the end of the listing.

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