Parallels In Judaism And Islam

Among Muslims and Jews in Islamic lands, where the educated language for both was Arabic, the usual terms for philosophy and theology, namely falsafah (falasifa philosophers) and kalam respectively, also had different meanings. In the case of falsafah, depending on the context, it can have broad and narrow senses, meaning either secular learning or a type or sect of philosophy. At times, falsafah is used for any natural knowledge or for general teachings, such as the disciplines of the liberal...

Developments In The Theology Faculty From The 13th Century Onward

In the prologue to his Summa aurea Golden Summa , William of Aux-erre, writing around 1230, summarized under three headings the various tasks that theologians have undertaken throughout the centuries They have provided arguments that increase and strengthen the faith in Christian believers they have defended by the use of arguments the faith of the Christian community against heretics and, finally, they have led some unbelievers through arguments to accept the faith of the Church. Arguments,...

Acronyms and Abbreviations

C. capitulum (chapter) ca. circa (about) HCPMA History of Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages LG Lumen Gentium (Encyclical Letter Light of the World) O. Carm. Ordo Carmelitarum (Carmelites) O. Cart. Ordo Cartusiensis (Carthusians) O. Cist. Ordo Cisterciensium (Cistercians) O.F.M. Ordo Fratrum Minorum (Franciscans) O.P. Ordo Praedicatorum (Dominicans) O.E.S.A. Ordo Eremitarum Sancti Augustini (Order of the Hermits O.S.B. Ordo Sancti Benedicti (Benedictines) PG Patrologia Graeca (Greek...

An Overview Of The Medieval Intellectual World

The above samples of the different ways in which medieval philosophers and theologians read Aristotle are only a hint of the rich diversity that is found in the writings of the medieval authors from the three religious traditions that are examined. In the remaining part of this introduction, we attempt to present an overview of the world of medieval philosophy and theology to help the reader better locate the authors, events, and concepts presented in the dictionary that follows. This overview...

Readers Note

Generally the listing of medieval names in library catalogues or book indexes begins with the first name, so if you were looking for Peter Damian or Peter Lombard, you would look under Peter. In the present volume, you would be correct in your search They are listed under Peter. However, there are many Peters and many Johns and many Williams. Some of them are more widely known by their last name, and many readers might not even know the first name. This dictionary begins with Abelard, Peter...

Historical Dictionaries Of Religions Philosophies And Movements Jon Woronoff Series Editor

Prebish, 1993. 2. Mormonism, by Davis Bitton, 1994. Out of print. See no. 32. 3. Ecumenical Christianity, by Ans Joachim van der Bent, 1994. 4. Terrorism, by Sean Anderson and Stephen Sloan, 1995. Out of print. See no. 41. 5. Sikhism, by W. H. McLeod, 1995. Out of print. See no. 59. 6. Feminism, by Janet K. Boles and Diane Long Hoeveler, 1995. Out of print. See no. 52. 7. Olympic Movement, by Ian Buchanan and Bill Mallon, 1995. Out of print. See no. 39. 8. Methodism, by...

Faith And Reason

Although medieval thinkers within all three religious traditions could justify the use of reason in their attempts to understand God's revelation to them, by affirming that God is the author of the Book of Scripture and the Book of Nature, and that any conflict between the two books could only be apparent, the medieval Christian authors provide many more explicit reflections on conflicts between faith and reason. Medieval Muslim writers interpreted their Scriptures within the tradition of the...

The Terms Theology And Philosophy

It is important here to clarify the meaning of words like theology and philosophy, since they will be words often used, and employed in different senses. Theology is not a biblical word, and its use was avoided especially in the Latin West. Tertullian in Ad nationes reported a distinction presented by the Roman author Varro (d. 27 b .c.e.) that distinguished three types of theology one that presented the gods of the poets another, the gods of the philosophers and a third, the gods of the city....

Declarative And Deductive Theology

After the time of Godfrey and other critics of Aquinas, especially Henry of Ghent, theology seemed to take one of two paths. The main approach was the method of deductive theology. The center of attention in this procedure is on the truths of the faith with an eye to drawing out further insights, conclusions, and applications of these basic teachings. The habit or ability that one develops with this form of theology is deduc tive. The focus is on what further truths are involved in or can be...

The Lectio

The pro and con approach to study found in Abelard's Sic et Non treatise provides the occasion to underscore the procedures of education that guided studies in the liberal arts, philosophy proper, and the reading of Scripture or theology. These procedures were reading lectio , questioning quaestio , and disputing disputatio . Each of these exercises has a long history. The lectio or reading exercise already had classic phases at the time of Varro, which was shortly before the time of Christ....

The Quaestio

The medieval quaestio exercise developed when readers like Abelard, Robert of Melun, and others went beyond recitation and glosses and attempted to discover the meaning of the texts they studied. When, for instance, they examined the biblical texts, they found that the understanding of different Patristic authorities varied. When the authorities were in conflict, they had to evaluate the authorities and provide reasons why one gave a better explanation than another. The arguments of the...