1 I will refer to the second edition of Brucker's history published from 1766 to 1767.
2 Brucker is not writing this history as if he were a member of one of these religions. When I
say that Brucker writes these histories for their own sake, I mean that he is attempting to do justice to these philosophical traditions. He is not only discussing them in order to prepare to discuss the philosophy of another tradition. For a clear statement of the argument that a member of one tradition can understand the philosophy of another tradition, see Oliver Leaman's article "Orientalism and Islamic Philosophy" (Nasr and Leaman 1996, 2:11431148).
3 (Hegel 1965 19:125) While Hegel will also argue that the Latin thinkers did not make any significant philosophical strides, he will devote more attention to that project and discuss many of the significant figures in some detail (Hegel 1965, 19:198-199).
4 (Ritter 1829-1853, 7:665-703, 8:3-173) They include Farabi, Avicenna, Ghazali, Avempace,
Avicebron, Ibn Tufayl, and Averroes.
5 I argue elsewhere that we should not consider Haureau's history of Scholastic philosophy as a full blown history of medieval philosophy, since it focuses on epistemological and metaphysical issues (Inglis 1998, 56). Haureau devotes thirty pages to Islamic and Jewish philosophy with references to Albert the Great, Aquinas, and Scotus (Haureau 1850, 1:359390).
6 I do not mean to imply that Stockl only discusses those Islamic and Jewish intellectuals who had a strong influence on the Latin Scholastics. For example he discusses Ghazali and the Kabbalah (Stockl 1864-1866, 2:186-214, 232-251, respectively). Yet the Latins were familiar with Ghazali's Maqasid al-Falasifah. Understanding him does help to flesh out the context of Christian thought. The Kabbalah would become so influential in Europe, that its inclusion does not indicate that Stockl is writing a history of Jewish philosophy for its own sake.
7 (Armstrong 1967, 645) For a clear presentation of the translation movement, see Gutas 1998.
8 It is significant that the neglect of the history of Islamic and Jewish philosophy in these histories often reflects the boundaries of the disciplines that promote these studies. Often historians of the history of Latin medieval philosophy are employed in philosophy departments while historians of Islamic and Jewish philosophy are affiliated with departments which study Semitic languages, the culture of the Middle East, or religious studies. The institutional divisions that separate these faculties appear to be reflected in the histories that they write, especially in the standard histories of medieval philosophy.
9 (ST 1.19.8) In citing Aquinas's Summa theologiae, the first number indicates the part of the work, the second number the question, and the third the article. When necessary, I will use ad in order to refer to the replies to the objections.
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Bernal, Martin. 1987. Black Athena. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.
Brucker, Jacob. 1766-1767. Historia Critica Philosophiae, 2nd ed. 6 Vols. Leipzig: Weidemann.
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al-Ghazali. 1997. The Incoherence of the Philosophers, translated by Michael E. Marmura. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press.
Gilson, Etienne. 1955. History of Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages. New York: Random House.
Gutas, Dimitri. 1998. Greek Thought, Arabic Culture. London and New York: Routledge.
Guthrie, W.K.C. 1962-1981. A History of Greek Philosophy, 6 Vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hauréau, Barthélemy. 1850. De la philosophie scolastique, 2 Vols. Paris: Pagnerre.
Hegel, Georg Friedrich. 1833-1836. Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Philosophic. Edition used: 1965. Ed. Ludwig Michelet. In 1956-1965, Sämtliche Werke. Jubiläumsausgabe in zwanzig Bänden. 4th ed. 20 Vols. Edited by Hermann Glockner. Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: F.Frommann, Vols. 18-19.
Inglis, John. 1998. Spheres of Philosophical Inquiry and the Historiography of Medieval Philosophy. Leidon, Boston, and Cologne: Brill.
Kretzmann, Norman; Kenny, Anthony; and Pinborg, Jan; eds. 1982. Cambridge History ofLater Medieval Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Marenbon, John, ed. 1998. Medieval Philosophy. London and New York: Routledge.
Nasr, Seyyed Hossein and Leaman, Oliver, eds. 1996. History of Islamic Philosophy, 2 Vols. London and New York: Routledge.
Ritter, Heinrich. 1829-1853. Geschichte der Philosophic, 12 Vols. Hamburg: Friedrich Perthes.
Stöckl, Albert. 1864-1866. Geschichte der Philosophic des Mittelalters, 3 Vols. Mainz: Franz Kircheim.
Wulf, Maurice de. 1900. Histoire de la Philosophic Médiévale. Louvain: Institut superieur de philosophic; Paris: F.Alcan; and Brussels: Schepens.
--. 1934-1947. Histoire de la Philosophic Médiévale, 3 Vols. Louvain: Institut superieur de philosophic.
SECTION ONE HISTORICAL CONTEXT
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