1 It was Bernard McGinn, in the course of our conference published as God and Creation

(Burrell and McGinn 1990), who first raised this possibility with me; given how long it has lingered, this exploration is dedicated in gratitude to him and his work. Most recently, Louis Dupre made a similar observation, and I realized how much the issue needed to be nuanced.

2 Norman Kretzmann's struggles with this issue (1991; 1997, pp. 218-20) offer oblique testimony to Aquinas' point, while James Ross's attempts (1996) to offer a positive characterization help to confirm ours.

3 For a constructive treatment, see Gilles Emery's (1995) magisterial study of Aquinas'

commentary on Lombard's Sentences.

4 See Nicholas Lash's (1982) contribution to the McKinnon festschrift: both the Bible and the

Qur'an offer the model of speech to underscore the creator's free involvement.

5 While Sokolowski (1982, 1995) gives cogent reasons for further identifying it as "the

Christian distinction," I have argued (in the Sokolowski festschrift) that Jewish and Islamic thought regard the creator in an analogous fashion (Burrell 1996).

6 Kathryn Tanner's (1988) way of articulating the relation as "non-contrastive" will also prove useful in identifying its unique features.

7 The phrase is Sara Grant's, in her Teape lectures (1991, 35).

8 "Infinite qualitative difference" is Kierkegaard's phrase, invoked simply to show how "the distinction" keeps re-appearing in different keys. For participation, see Rudi teVelde 1996.

9 David Braine 1988 remarks on the novelty characteristic of existing, while Emilie Zum Brunn notes the intertwined character of revelation and reason in discovering the singularity of esse in two relevant essays (1978, 1986).

10 For a characteristic "modern" take on Aquinas, which misses the primacy of esse even in his work, see Christopher Hughes 1989; for substantive reflections on overlooking origination, see George Steiner 1989.

11 See my contribution to Lenn Evan Goodman: Burrell 1992, 207-16.

12 See Freddoso 1988, 1-81; and Flint 1998.

13 A clear rendition of this apparently paradoxical account can be found in Yves Simon 1969.

14 I am indebted to a conversation with Stacey Wendlinder, currently a doctoral candidate at Notre Dame working on Eckhart, for proposing this way of suggesting the difference between them.

15 Pierre Hadot's original work, Exercises spirituels et philosophic antique (2nd ed. 1987) is now out of print, but for an excellent summary of his thought see Hadot 1995a, and a superb collection of his articles has been translated and presented by Arnold Davidson: Hadot 1995b.

16 The title of M-D Chenu's masterpiece, Théologie comme science dans la trezième siècle, says it all with that delicate 'comme '.

17 See J.Janssens 1986, 173-77: a more extensive study of "Al-Ghazzâlî, and his use of Avicennian texts" will be published in the acts of the 1996 Budapest symposium on "Problems in Arabic Philosophy."


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